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An investigation of the role of leadership in consensus decision-making (2022)
Journal Article
Perret, C., & Powers, S. T. (2022). An investigation of the role of leadership in consensus decision-making. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 543, Article 111094. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2022.111094

Leadership is a widespread phenomena in social organisms and it is recognised to facilitate coordination between individuals. While the role of leadership in group foraging or swarm movement is well understood, it is not clear if leaders would also b... Read More about An investigation of the role of leadership in consensus decision-making.

Four levers of reciprocity across human societies: concepts, analysis and predictions (2022)
Journal Article
Lehmann, L., Powers, S. T., & van Schaik, C. P. (2022). Four levers of reciprocity across human societies: concepts, analysis and predictions. Evolutionary Human Sciences, 4, https://doi.org/10.1017/ehs.2022.7

This paper surveys five human societal types – mobile foragers, horticulturalists, pre-state agriculturalists, state-based agriculturalists and liberal democracies – from the perspective of three core social problems faced by interacting individuals:... Read More about Four levers of reciprocity across human societies: concepts, analysis and predictions.

Social interactions in striped hyena inferred from camera trap data: is it more social than previously thought? (2020)
Journal Article
Tichon, J., Gilchrist, J. S., Rotem, G., Ward, P., & Spiegel, O. (2020). Social interactions in striped hyena inferred from camera trap data: is it more social than previously thought?. Current Zoology, 66(4), 345-353. https://doi.org/10.1093/cz/zoaa003

Understanding the drivers promoting sociality over solitariness in animal species is imperative for predicting future population trends and informing conservation and management. In this study we investigate the social structure of a desert dwelling... Read More about Social interactions in striped hyena inferred from camera trap data: is it more social than previously thought?.

Estimating pollinator performance of visitors to the self-incompatible crop-plant Brassica rapa by single visit deposition and pollen germination: a comparison of methods (2017)
Journal Article
Patchett, R., Ballantyne, G., & Willmer, P. (2017). Estimating pollinator performance of visitors to the self-incompatible crop-plant Brassica rapa by single visit deposition and pollen germination: a comparison of methods. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 21(3), 78-85

Estimating the pollen-deposition effectiveness of flower visitors is fundamental to understanding their performance as pollinators. While estimates of visitation rates, pollen loads, and single visit deposition (SVD) are all useful proxies for perfor... Read More about Estimating pollinator performance of visitors to the self-incompatible crop-plant Brassica rapa by single visit deposition and pollen germination: a comparison of methods.

Habitat preferences by individual humpback whale mothers in the Hawaiian breeding grounds vary with the age and size of their calves (2017)
Journal Article
Pack, A. A., Herman, L. M., Craig, A. S., Spitz, S. S., Waterman, J. O., Herman, E. Y., …Lowe, C. (2017). Habitat preferences by individual humpback whale mothers in the Hawaiian breeding grounds vary with the age and size of their calves. Animal Behaviour, 133, 131-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.09.012

We investigated whether calf age and calf size influence habitat choice by humpback whale motherecalf pairs in their breeding grounds. During 1997e2008, we conducted focal follows of motherecalf pairs in Hawaiian waters. Tail-fluke identification pho... Read More about Habitat preferences by individual humpback whale mothers in the Hawaiian breeding grounds vary with the age and size of their calves.

An unexpected journey: Diurnal movement into deeper waters by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mother-calf pairs observed off Northwest Maui, Hawai’i (2017)
Presentation / Conference
Pack, A., Craig, A., & Waterman, J. (2017, October). An unexpected journey: Diurnal movement into deeper waters by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mother-calf pairs observed off Northwest Maui, Hawai’i. Poster presented at 22nd Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals

Recent studies of humpback whale habitat use in the Hawaiian breeding grounds have revealed that mother-calf pairs favor shallow waters to avoid harassment from male humpbacks. However, human activity in these same shallow waters may, in theory, exe... Read More about An unexpected journey: Diurnal movement into deeper waters by humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mother-calf pairs observed off Northwest Maui, Hawai’i.

Pollinator importance networks illustrate the crucial value of bees in a highly speciose plant community (2017)
Journal Article
Ballantyne, G., Baldock, K. C. R., Rendell, L., & Willmer, P. (2017). Pollinator importance networks illustrate the crucial value of bees in a highly speciose plant community. Scientific Reports, 7(1), Article 8389. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08798-x

Accurate predictions of pollination service delivery require a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between plants and flower visitors. To improve measurements of pollinator performance underlying such predictions, we surveyed visitation f... Read More about Pollinator importance networks illustrate the crucial value of bees in a highly speciose plant community.

Insights from measuring pollen deposition: quantifying the pre-eminence of bees as flower visitors and effective pollinators (2017)
Journal Article
Willmer, P. G., Cunnold, H., & Ballantyne, G. (2017). Insights from measuring pollen deposition: quantifying the pre-eminence of bees as flower visitors and effective pollinators. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 11(3), 411-425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11829-017-9528-2

Using our accumulated datasets from Kenyan savanna, Mediterranean garigue, UK gardens and heathland, involving 76 plants from 30 families, we present detailed data to quantify the superiority of bees as pollinators of most flowering plants when compa... Read More about Insights from measuring pollen deposition: quantifying the pre-eminence of bees as flower visitors and effective pollinators.

Constructing more informative plant–pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community (2015)
Journal Article
Ballantyne, G., Baldock, K. C. R., & Willmer, P. G. (2015). Constructing more informative plant–pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1814), https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1130

Interaction networks are widely used as tools to understand plant–pollinator communities, and to examine potential threats to plant diversity and food security if the ecosystem service provided by pollinating animals declines. However, most networks... Read More about Constructing more informative plant–pollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community.

Eurasian lynx natal den site and maternal home-range selection in multi-use landscapes of Norway: Habitat selection by denning Eurasian lynx (2015)
Journal Article
White, S., Briers, R. A., Bouyer, Y., Odden, J., & Linnell, J. D. C. (2015). Eurasian lynx natal den site and maternal home-range selection in multi-use landscapes of Norway: Habitat selection by denning Eurasian lynx. Journal of Zoology, 297(2), 87-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12260

In carnivores, securing suitable den sites with associated early maternal home ranges is important for successful reproduction, and understanding natal den site selection is essential to ensure that these habitats are protected from human disturbance... Read More about Eurasian lynx natal den site and maternal home-range selection in multi-use landscapes of Norway: Habitat selection by denning Eurasian lynx.

Habitat segregation by female humpback whales in Hawaiian waters: avoidance of males? (2013)
Journal Article
Craig, A. S., Herman, L. M., Pack, A. A., & Waterman, J. (2014). Habitat segregation by female humpback whales in Hawaiian waters: avoidance of males?. Behaviour, 151(5), 613-631. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568539x-00003151

Humpback whales congregate annually in low-latitude winter breeding and calving grounds. While on these grounds, females with a dependent calf (‘maternal females’) are sometimes closely attended by one or more male escorts. Using data collected from... Read More about Habitat segregation by female humpback whales in Hawaiian waters: avoidance of males?.

Why flower visitation is a poor proxy for pollination: measuring single-visit pollen deposition, with implications for pollination networks and conservation (2013)
Journal Article
King, C., Ballantyne, G., & Willmer, P. G. (2013). Why flower visitation is a poor proxy for pollination: measuring single-visit pollen deposition, with implications for pollination networks and conservation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4(9), 811-818. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210x.12074

Summary The relative importance of specialized and generalized plant-pollinator relationships is contentious, yet analyses usually avoid direct measures of pollinator quality (effectiveness), citing difficulties in collecting such data in the field... Read More about Why flower visitation is a poor proxy for pollination: measuring single-visit pollen deposition, with implications for pollination networks and conservation.

Floral visitors and ant scent marks: noticed but not used? (2012)
Journal Article
Ballantyne, G., & Willmer, P. (2012). Floral visitors and ant scent marks: noticed but not used?. Ecological Entomology, 37(5), 402-409. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01378.x

1. Bee behaviour when visiting flowers is mediated by diverse chemical cues and signals, from the flower itself and from previous visitors to the flower. Flowers recently visited by bees and hoverflies may be rejected for a period of time by subseque... Read More about Floral visitors and ant scent marks: noticed but not used?.

Nectar Theft and Floral Ant-Repellence: A Link between Nectar Volume and Ant-Repellent Traits? (2012)
Journal Article
Ballantyne, G., & Willmer, P. (2012). Nectar Theft and Floral Ant-Repellence: A Link between Nectar Volume and Ant-Repellent Traits?. PLOS ONE, 7(8), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043869

As flower visitors, ants rarely benefit a plant. They are poor pollinators, and can also disrupt pollination by deterring other flower visitors, or by stealing nectar. Some plant species therefore possess floral ant-repelling traits. But why do parti... Read More about Nectar Theft and Floral Ant-Repellence: A Link between Nectar Volume and Ant-Repellent Traits?.

Size-assortative pairing and discrimination of potential mates by humpback whales in the Hawaiian breeding grounds (2012)
Journal Article
Pack, A. A., Herman, L. M., Spitz, S. S., Craig, A. S., Hakala, S., Deakos, M. H., …Lowe, C. (2012). Size-assortative pairing and discrimination of potential mates by humpback whales in the Hawaiian breeding grounds. Animal Behaviour, 84(4), 983-993. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.07.024

Assortative pairing, and its relation to mate choice, has rarely been documented in mammals. Using data collected from 1998-2007, we investigated size-assortative pairing as it relates to discrimination amongst potential mates in humpback whale (Mega... Read More about Size-assortative pairing and discrimination of potential mates by humpback whales in the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

Resightings of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters over spans of 10-32 years: Site fidelity, sex ratios, calving rates, female demographics, and the dynamics of social and behavioral roles of individuals (2010)
Journal Article
Herman, L. M., Pack, A. A., Rose, K., Craig, A., Herman, E. Y. K., Hakala, S., & Milette, A. (2011). Resightings of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters over spans of 10-32 years: Site fidelity, sex ratios, calving rates, female demographics, and the dynamics of social and behavioral roles of individuals. Marine Mammal Science, 27(4), 736-768. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00441.x

From a database of approximately 5,000 Hawaiian humpback whales identified photographically between 1976 and 2010, we extracted 71 males and 39 females having resighting spans of 10 or more years, from first to most recent sighting. Findings include... Read More about Resightings of humpback whales in Hawaiian waters over spans of 10-32 years: Site fidelity, sex ratios, calving rates, female demographics, and the dynamics of social and behavioral roles of individuals.

Migratory timing of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the central North Pacific varies with age, sex and reproductive status. (2003)
Journal Article
Craig, A. S., Herman, L. M., Gabriele, C. M., & Pack, A. A. (2003). Migratory timing of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the central North Pacific varies with age, sex and reproductive status. Behaviour, 140, 981-1000. doi:10.1163/156853903322589605

Humpback whales migrate seasonally between high-latitude summer feeding grounds and low-latitude winter breeding grounds. Identification photographs of humpback whales were collected in the Hawaiian Islands between 1977 and 1995, and sighting histori... Read More about Migratory timing of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the central North Pacific varies with age, sex and reproductive status..