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The relationship between bending and tension strength of Irish and UK spruce and pine (2022)
Journal Article
Gil-Moreno, D., Ridley-Ellis, D., O'Ceallaigh, C., & Harte, A. M. (in press). The relationship between bending and tension strength of Irish and UK spruce and pine. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-022-01787-6

The correct characterisation of wood properties is fundamental for the best utilisation of resources. In Europe, grading is defined by strength classes that are determined based on either bending or tension tests. The European standards give equation... Read More about The relationship between bending and tension strength of Irish and UK spruce and pine.

Test Machine Effect in the determination of modulus of elasticity for strength-graded timber (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Gil-Moreno, D., Ridley-Ellis, D., & Harte, A. M. (2021). Test Machine Effect in the determination of modulus of elasticity for strength-graded timber. In WCTE 2021: World Conference on Timber Engineering Proceedings

This paper investigates if the relationship between the global and local moduli of elasticity (MoE), measured in bending tests, is affected by the test machines employed, and how that may influence strength grading. The ultimate aim is to study the p... Read More about Test Machine Effect in the determination of modulus of elasticity for strength-graded timber.

Alternative UK timber species (2021)
Book Chapter
Adams, S., & Ridley-Ellis, D. (2021). Alternative UK timber species. In Timber 2021 Industry Yearbook (104-111). High Wycombe: TRADA

Steven Adams and Dan Ridley-Ellis discuss the findings of a recent research project into the properties and potential uses of lesser-used species in the UK.

Grade in Britain: enabling a wider range of home grown species (2021)
Book Chapter
Ridley-Ellis, D. (2021). Grade in Britain: enabling a wider range of home grown species. In Timber 2020 Industry Yearbook (132-137). High Wycombe: TRADA

Dan Ridley-Ellis summarises the different home-grown species currently available, and looks to the future of strength grading for an increasingly wide range of species.

Estimating mechanical properties of clear wood from ten‐year‐old Melia azedarach trees using the stress wave method (2021)
Journal Article
Van Duong, D., & Ridley-Ellis, D. (2021). Estimating mechanical properties of clear wood from ten‐year‐old Melia azedarach trees using the stress wave method. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 79(4), 941-949. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-021-01664-8

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of stress wave velocity (SWV) as a rapid and non-destructive method to estimate the mechanical properties of Melia azedarach wood. The SWV, dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE d), modulus of ela... Read More about Estimating mechanical properties of clear wood from ten‐year‐old Melia azedarach trees using the stress wave method.

A case study of timber demolition recycling in the UK (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Cramer, M., & Ridley-Ellis, D. (2021). A case study of timber demolition recycling in the UK. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering – WSE2020 (89-91)

A brief look at alternative species in the UK (2021)
Conference Proceeding
Adams, S. H., & Ridley-Ellis, D. J. (2021). A brief look at alternative species in the UK. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering – WSE2020 (68-70)

A Shed Resource: A look at Wood Recycling in the UK (2020)
Presentation / Conference
Cramer, M., & Ridley-Ellis, D. (2020, September). A Shed Resource: A look at Wood Recycling in the UK. Paper presented at Timber 2020, Online

The secondary timber value chain was explored by interviewing companies involved in wood recycling. The interviewees include community wood recyclers, chip producers and board-making companies. This paper is a perspective of the wood recycling indust... Read More about A Shed Resource: A look at Wood Recycling in the UK.

Some awkward questions about density (2020)
Conference Proceeding
Ridley-Ellis, D., & Cramer, M. (2020). Some awkward questions about density. In Timber 2020 Conference Proceedings. , (99-110)

There are several different concepts of wood density, such as specific gravity, basic density, dry density, and oven dry density. These are often confusing, and sometimes poorly described in the literature, but they can be unambiguously defined and m... Read More about Some awkward questions about density.

Analysis of a wooden specimen's mechanical properties through acoustic measurements in the very near field (2020)
Journal Article
Pantelić, F., Mijić, M., Šumarac Pavlović, D., Ridley-Ellis, D., & Dudeš, D. (2020). Analysis of a wooden specimen's mechanical properties through acoustic measurements in the very near field. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 147(4), EL320-EL325. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0001030

This paper presents the method for prediction of some basic mechanical parameters of a wood specimen by using simple instrumentation. The standard acoustic method for assessment of modulus of elasticity using the impulse excitation is extended by usi... Read More about Analysis of a wooden specimen's mechanical properties through acoustic measurements in the very near field.

The Mechanical and Resonance Assessment of Large Clear Samples of UK-Grown Beech Wood (2019)
Journal Article
Ridley-Ellis, D. (2019). The Mechanical and Resonance Assessment of Large Clear Samples of UK-Grown Beech Wood. Pro Ligno, 15(4), 32-39

The paper presents the results of non-destructive longitudinal resonance (impulse excitation technique), and mechanical flexural testing, of a batch of European beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.), grown in the United Kingdom. The material was largely fr... Read More about The Mechanical and Resonance Assessment of Large Clear Samples of UK-Grown Beech Wood.

Influence of knot area indexes on tension strength of Sitka spruce (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Gil-Moreno, D., Ridley-Ellis, D., & Harte, A. M. (2019). Influence of knot area indexes on tension strength of Sitka spruce. In Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering

It is well known that knots can reduce the strength of timber, and the selection of “critical section” for testing to EN 408 and EN 384 is typically based on the size and position of knots. In Ireland, the visual strength grading Standard IS 127 spec... Read More about Influence of knot area indexes on tension strength of Sitka spruce.

Grading of British spruce cladding battens by ring width for density, fastener performance and fire (2019)
Conference Proceeding
Ridley-Ellis, D. (2019). Grading of British spruce cladding battens by ring width for density, fastener performance and fire. In Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering

The UK has a British Standard for external timber cladding, BS8605-1, in which support battens are defined as timber components of a section, grade, and durability, suitable for supporting external timber cladding. The term includes both battens (whi... Read More about Grading of British spruce cladding battens by ring width for density, fastener performance and fire.

Quantification of chemical changes taking place in spruce wood structure following long period thermal treatment (2019)
Presentation / Conference
Popescu, C., Ridley-Ellis, D., & Popescu, M. (2019, August). Quantification of chemical changes taking place in spruce wood structure following long period thermal treatment. Paper presented at 2DCOS-10, The 10th International Symposium on Two-dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy, Changchun, China

Wood is a natural composite polymer containing different amounts of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses and some other low molecular compounds (i.e. extractives). Due to its structure wood is susceptible to degradation in the surrounding environment... Read More about Quantification of chemical changes taking place in spruce wood structure following long period thermal treatment.

Timber grading potential of Douglas fir in the Republic of Ireland and the UK (2019)
Journal Article
Gil-Moreno, D., Ridley-Ellis, D., & Harte, A. (2019). Timber grading potential of Douglas fir in the Republic of Ireland and the UK. International Wood Products Journal, 10(2), 64-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/20426445.2019.1617984

Results of the recently approved machine control grading settings for Douglas fir in the Republic of Ireland and the UK have shown that the species can be graded to C18, and higher strength classes, and while there is a relatively high proportion of... Read More about Timber grading potential of Douglas fir in the Republic of Ireland and the UK.

Lesser-used UK-grown timber (2019)
Book Chapter
Ridley-Ellis, D. (2019). Lesser-used UK-grown timber. In TRADA Timber Industry Yearbook 2019 (200-205)

Daniel Ridley-Ellis looks at the grading properties of different species in comparison with the highly commercial Sitka spruce.

Grading of British Timber (2018)
Journal Article
Ridley-Ellis, D. (2018). Grading of British Timber. The Full Circle: The Journal of the Association of Scottish Hardwood Sawmillers, 34-36

A summary of grading of home grown timber for the magazine of the Association of Scottish Hardwood Sawmillers (ASHS).

Some thresholds for grading British grown spruce to optimised strength classes using longitudinal resonance (2018)
Conference Proceeding
Ridley-Ellis, D., Adams, S., & Lehneke, S. (2018). Some thresholds for grading British grown spruce to optimised strength classes using longitudinal resonance

The main commercial species in the UK and Ireland is Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), which is graded in combination with a small amount of Norway spruce (P. abies). It is typically graded to the European strength class C16, but actually has superior... Read More about Some thresholds for grading British grown spruce to optimised strength classes using longitudinal resonance.

Strength grading of timber in the UK in 2018 (2018)
Presentation / Conference
Ridley-Ellis, D. (2018, June). Strength grading of timber in the UK in 2018. Paper presented at Timber 2018 (By the Wood Technology Society of IOM3), London

This paper summarises the state-of-the-art of strength grading of UK-grown timber. It lists the following information along with the primary references: visual grading grades and strength class assignments; grading machines with approved settings for... Read More about Strength grading of timber in the UK in 2018.