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An innovative approach for the passive cooling of batteries: An empirical investigation of copper deposition on polyurethane foam for the enhancement of phase change material (2024)
Journal Article
Alcock, K. M., Shearer, N., Santos, F. V., Cai, Z., & Goh, K. (2024). An innovative approach for the passive cooling of batteries: An empirical investigation of copper deposition on polyurethane foam for the enhancement of phase change material. Applied Materials Today, 38, Article 102221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmt.2024.102221

A proof-of-concept utilising Copper-Plated Polyurethane Foam (CPPF) and Phase Change Material (PCM) for passive thermal management of lithium-ion batteries is demonstrated in this study. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of CPPF... Read More about An innovative approach for the passive cooling of batteries: An empirical investigation of copper deposition on polyurethane foam for the enhancement of phase change material.

The Influence of ENSO on the Long‐Term Water Storage Anomalies in the Middle‐Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin: Evaluation and Analysis (2023)
Journal Article
Li, X., Jin, T., Liu, B., Chao, N., Li, F., & Cai, Z. (2023). The Influence of ENSO on the Long‐Term Water Storage Anomalies in the Middle‐Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin: Evaluation and Analysis. Earth and Space Science, 10(10), Article e2023EA003007. https://doi.org/10.1029/2023ea003007

Recent extreme events in the Middle‐Lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin (MLYRB) are proven to be possibly linked to the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events as indicated by terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA). But the relatively short... Read More about The Influence of ENSO on the Long‐Term Water Storage Anomalies in the Middle‐Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin: Evaluation and Analysis.

Individual Cell-Level Temperature Monitoring of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack (2023)
Journal Article
Alcock, K. M., González-Vila, Á., Beg, M., Vedreño-Santos, F., Cai, Z., Alwis, L. S. M., & Goh, K. (2023). Individual Cell-Level Temperature Monitoring of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack. Sensors, 23(9), Article 4306. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23094306

The work described herein details the deployment of an optical fibre strand with five fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for individual cell-level temperature monitoring of a three-cell lithium-ion battery pack. A polymer guide tube with 3D printed pl... Read More about Individual Cell-Level Temperature Monitoring of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack.

Numerical assessments of the effects of injected air temperature and well configuration on the cycle performance in compressed air energy storage in aquifers (2022)
Book Chapter
Yang, L., Cai, Z., Li, C., Guo, C., & He, Q. (2023). Numerical assessments of the effects of injected air temperature and well configuration on the cycle performance in compressed air energy storage in aquifers. In J. Miocic, N. Heinemann, K. Edlmann, J. Alcalde, & R. Schultz (Eds.), Enabling Secure Subsurface Storage in Future Energy Systems. Geological Society. https://doi.org/10.1144/sp528-2022-74

Aquifers have advantages over salt caverns as the storage vessels for compressed air energy storage due to their wider availability for suitable sites and lower one-off capital investment for construction. We conducted numerical simulations for compr... Read More about Numerical assessments of the effects of injected air temperature and well configuration on the cycle performance in compressed air energy storage in aquifers.

Development of a Novel Simulator for Modelling Underground Hydrogen and Gas Mixture Storage (2022)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Zhang, K., & Guo, C. (2022). Development of a Novel Simulator for Modelling Underground Hydrogen and Gas Mixture Storage. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(14), 8929-8942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.12.224

Underground hydrogen storage can store grid-scale energy for balancing both short-term and long-term inter-seasonal supply and demand. However, there is no numerical simulator which is dedicated to the design and optimisation of such energy storage t... Read More about Development of a Novel Simulator for Modelling Underground Hydrogen and Gas Mixture Storage.

Novel machine learning approach for solar photovoltaic energy output forecast using extra-terrestrial solar irradiance (2021)
Journal Article
Fjelkestam Frederiksen, C. A., & Cai, Z. (2022). Novel machine learning approach for solar photovoltaic energy output forecast using extra-terrestrial solar irradiance. Applied Energy, 306, Article 118152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.118152

• Extra-terrestrial Solar Irradiance has been validated for PV output forecasting. • The machine learning approach successfully captures huge intra-daily PV output variations. • Study paves the way to develop a simple and effective PV output forecast... Read More about Novel machine learning approach for solar photovoltaic energy output forecast using extra-terrestrial solar irradiance.

Utility-scale Subsurface Hydrogen Storage: UK Perspectives and Technology (2021)
Journal Article
Wallace, R. L., Cai, Z., Zhang, H., Zhang, K., & Guo, C. (2021). Utility-scale Subsurface Hydrogen Storage: UK Perspectives and Technology. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 46(49), 25137-25159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.05.034

To reduce effects from anthropogenically induced climate change renewable energy systems are being implemented at an accelerated rate, the UKs wind capacity alone is set to more than double by 2030. However, the intermittency associated with these sy... Read More about Utility-scale Subsurface Hydrogen Storage: UK Perspectives and Technology.

Analysis of the Polypropylene-Based Aluminium-Air Battery (2021)
Journal Article
Tan, W. C., Saw, L. H., Yew, M. C., Sun, D., Cai, Z., Chong, W. T., & Kuo, P. (2021). Analysis of the Polypropylene-Based Aluminium-Air Battery. Frontiers in Energy Research, 9, Article 599846. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2021.599846

Global energy demand is rising due to the rapid development and adoption of new technologies in every sector. Hence, there is a need to introduce a clean energy source that does not cause damage to the environment. Aluminium-air battery with its high... Read More about Analysis of the Polypropylene-Based Aluminium-Air Battery.

The promise and challenges of utility-scale compressed air energy storage in aquifers (2021)
Journal Article
Guo, C., Li, C., Zhang, K., Cai, Z., Ma, T., Maggi, F., …Shen, L. (2021). The promise and challenges of utility-scale compressed air energy storage in aquifers. Applied Energy, 286, Article 116513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116513

Widely distributed aquifers have been proposed as effective storage reservoirs for compressed air energy storage (CAES). This aims to overcome the limitations of geological conditions for conventional utility-scale CAES, which has to date used cavern... Read More about The promise and challenges of utility-scale compressed air energy storage in aquifers.

Modelling a field-scale compressed air energy storage in porous rock reservoirs (2020)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Yang, L., Guo, C., Li, C., He, Q., Zhang, K., & Cai, Z. (2019, August). Modelling a field-scale compressed air energy storage in porous rock reservoirs. Presented at International Conference on Applied Energy 2019, Västerås, Sweden

Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is one of the promising methods to store the surplus solar and wind energy in a grid scale . In this study, we used a non-isothermal multiphase flow simulator to model a field-scale study o... Read More about Modelling a field-scale compressed air energy storage in porous rock reservoirs.

Estimation of component contributions to total terrestrial water storage change in the Yangtze River basin (2020)
Journal Article
Chao, N., Jin, T., Cai, Z., Chen, G., Liu, X., & Wang, Z. (2021). Estimation of component contributions to total terrestrial water storage change in the Yangtze River basin. Journal of Hydrology, 595, Article 125661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125661

Terrestrial water storage (TWS) is a key variable in global and regional hydrological cycles. In this study, the TWS changes in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) were derived using the Lagrange multiplier method (LMM) from Gravity Recovery and Climate Ex... Read More about Estimation of component contributions to total terrestrial water storage change in the Yangtze River basin.

Numerical investigation of cycle performance in compressed air energy storage in aquifers (2020)
Journal Article
Yang, L., Cai, Z., Li, C., He, Q., Ma, Y., & Guo, C. (2020). Numerical investigation of cycle performance in compressed air energy storage in aquifers. Applied Energy, 269, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115044

Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is one of the promising technologies to store the renewable energies such as surplus solar and wind energy in a grid scale. Due to the widespread of aquifers in the world, the compressed air energy storage in aqui... Read More about Numerical investigation of cycle performance in compressed air energy storage in aquifers.

Response of soil bacterial community composition and its associated geochemical parameters to rapid short-term cyclic groundwater-level oscillations: soil column experiments (2020)
Journal Article
Xia, X., Cheng, L., Zhu, Y., Liu, Y., Wang, K., Ding, A., Cai, Z., Shi, H., & Zuo, L. (2020). Response of soil bacterial community composition and its associated geochemical parameters to rapid short-term cyclic groundwater-level oscillations: soil column experiments. Vadose Zone Journal, 19(1), Article e20011. https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20011

Groundwater-level oscillations change geochemical conditions, carbon cycling processes and bacterial community composition, and these changes may vary vertically with depth in a soil. In this study, soil column experiments were conducted to explore v... Read More about Response of soil bacterial community composition and its associated geochemical parameters to rapid short-term cyclic groundwater-level oscillations: soil column experiments.

A process for deriving high quality cellulose nanofibrils from Water hyacinth invasive species (2020)
Journal Article
Sun, D., Onyianta, A. J., O’Rourke, D., Perrin, G., Popescu, C., Saw, L. H., Cai, Z., & Dorris, M. (2020). A process for deriving high quality cellulose nanofibrils from Water hyacinth invasive species. Cellulose, 27, 3727-3740. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03038-4

In this study, surface chemistry, the morphological properties, water retention values, linear viscoelastic properties, crystallinity index, tensile strength and thermal properties of water hyacinth (WH) cellulose were correlated with the degree of m... Read More about A process for deriving high quality cellulose nanofibrils from Water hyacinth invasive species.

The application of the yield approach to study slurry migration in drill cuttings waste underground disposal (2020)
Journal Article
Guo, C., Wang, X., Li, C., Zhang, K., & Cai, Z. (2020). The application of the yield approach to study slurry migration in drill cuttings waste underground disposal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 254, Article 120144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120144

The underground disposal of drill cuttings waste is a common practice for the gas/oil industry to achieve zero-discharge sustainable development. In this study, a numerical modeling approach was developed to simulate the slurry flow for underground d... Read More about The application of the yield approach to study slurry migration in drill cuttings waste underground disposal.

Finding Fair Negotiation Algorithms to Reduce Peak Electricity Consumption in Micro Grids (2019)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Powers, S. T., Meanwell, O., & Cai, Z. (2019, June). Finding Fair Negotiation Algorithms to Reduce Peak Electricity Consumption in Micro Grids. Presented at 17th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Avila, Spain

Reducing peak electricity consumption is important to maximise use of renewable energy sources, and reduce the total amount of capacity required on a grid. Most approaches use a centralised optimisation algorithm run by a utility company. Here we dev... Read More about Finding Fair Negotiation Algorithms to Reduce Peak Electricity Consumption in Micro Grids.

Assessing the capacity of biochar to stabilize copper and lead in contaminated sediments using chemical and extraction methods (2018)
Journal Article
Wang, M., Ren, L., Wang, D., Zuansi, C., Xia, X., & Ding, A. (2019). Assessing the capacity of biochar to stabilize copper and lead in contaminated sediments using chemical and extraction methods. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 79, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.11.007

Because of its high adsorption capacity, biochar has been used to stabilize heavy metals when remediating contaminated soils; to date, however, it has seldom been used to remediate contaminated sediment. In this study, a biochar was used as a stabili... Read More about Assessing the capacity of biochar to stabilize copper and lead in contaminated sediments using chemical and extraction methods.

Overview of porous media/metal foam application in fuel cells and solar power systems (2018)
Journal Article
Tan, W. C., Saw, L. H., Thiam, H. S., Xuan, J., Cai, Z., & Yew, M. C. (2018). Overview of porous media/metal foam application in fuel cells and solar power systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 96, 181-197

Fuel cells and solar energy are promising candidates for electricity generation. It is forecast that fuel cells and solar power systems will play an important role in reducing the greenhouse gas footprint and replacing fossil fuels. Therefore, the li... Read More about Overview of porous media/metal foam application in fuel cells and solar power systems.

Novel thermal management system using mist cooling for lithium-ion battery packs (2018)
Journal Article
Saw, L. H., Poon, H. M., Thiam, H. S., Cai, Z., Chong, W. T., Pambudi, N. A., & King, Y. J. (2018). Novel thermal management system using mist cooling for lithium-ion battery packs. Applied Energy, 223, 146-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.04.042

Thermal management system is crucial for a Lithium-ion battery pack as cycle life, driving range of electric vehicle, usable capacity and safety are heavily dependent on the operating temperature. Optimum operating temperature of Lithium-ion battery... Read More about Novel thermal management system using mist cooling for lithium-ion battery packs.

Numerical investigation for optimizing segmented micro-channel heat sink by Taguchi-Grey method (2018)
Journal Article
Naqiuddin, N. H., Saw, L. H., Yew, M. C., Yusof, F., Poon, H. M., Cai, Z., & Thiam, H. S. (2018). Numerical investigation for optimizing segmented micro-channel heat sink by Taguchi-Grey method. Applied Energy, 222, 437-450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.03.186

• Novel segmented micro-channel heat sink has been designed. • CFD models have been developed to simulate the performance of the segmented micro-channel. • Enhanced the cooling performance of the straight micro-channel. • Optimizing the segmented mic... Read More about Numerical investigation for optimizing segmented micro-channel heat sink by Taguchi-Grey method.

Numerical investigation of a joint approach to thermal energy storage and compressed air energy storage in aquifers (2017)
Journal Article
Guo, C., Zhang, K., Pan, L., Cai, Z., Li, C., & Li, Y. (2017). Numerical investigation of a joint approach to thermal energy storage and compressed air energy storage in aquifers. Applied Energy, 203, 948-958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.06.030

Different from conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, the advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage (AA-CAES) system can store the compression heat which can be used to reheat air during the electricity generation stage. Th... Read More about Numerical investigation of a joint approach to thermal energy storage and compressed air energy storage in aquifers.

Is China's fifth-largest inland lake to dry-up? Incorporated hydrological and satellite-based methods for forecasting Hulun Lake water levels (2016)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Jin, T., Li, C., Ofterdinger, U., Zhang, S., Ding, A., & Li, J. (2016). Is China's fifth-largest inland lake to dry-up? Incorporated hydrological and satellite-based methods for forecasting Hulun Lake water levels. Advances in water resources, 94, 185-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2016.05.010

Hulun Lake, China’s fifth-largest inland lake, experienced severe declines in water level in the period of 2000-2010. This has prompted concerns whether the lake is drying up gradually. A multi-million US dollar engineering project to construct a wat... Read More about Is China's fifth-largest inland lake to dry-up? Incorporated hydrological and satellite-based methods for forecasting Hulun Lake water levels.

Analysis of groundwater-level response to rainfall and estimation of annual recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers, NW Ireland (2016)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., & Ofterdinger, U. (2016). Analysis of groundwater-level response to rainfall and estimation of annual recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers, NW Ireland. Journal of Hydrology, 535, 71-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.01.066

Despite fractured hard rock aquifers underlying over 65% of Ireland, knowledge of key processes controlling groundwater recharge in these bedrock systems is inadequately constrained. In this study, we examined 19 groundwater-level hydrographs from tw... Read More about Analysis of groundwater-level response to rainfall and estimation of annual recharge in fractured hard rock aquifers, NW Ireland.

Numerical assessment of potential impacts of hydraulically fractured Bowland Shale on overlying aquifers (2014)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., & Ofterdinger, U. (2014). Numerical assessment of potential impacts of hydraulically fractured Bowland Shale on overlying aquifers. Water Resources Research, 50, 6236-6259. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR014943

Natural gas extracted from hydraulically fractured shale formations potentially has a big impact on the global energy landscape. However, there are concerns of potential environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing of the shale formations, particula... Read More about Numerical assessment of potential impacts of hydraulically fractured Bowland Shale on overlying aquifers.

Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment. Based in part on the article “Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment” by Steven F. Thornton, David N. Lerner, and Ruth M. Davison, which appeared in the Encyclopedia of Environmetrics (2013)
Other
Cai, Z., Thornton, S. F., & Lerner, D. N. (2013). Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment. Based in part on the article “Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment” by Steven F. Thornton, David N. Lerner, and Ruth M. Davison, which appeared in the Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Groundwater is an important component of water supplies in most countries. It exists in aquifers under unsaturated and saturated conditions. The flow of groundwater is primarily controlled by the aquifer physical properties and hydraulic pressure gra... Read More about Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment. Based in part on the article “Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment” by Steven F. Thornton, David N. Lerner, and Ruth M. Davison, which appeared in the Encyclopedia of Environmetrics.

Assessing TCE Source Bioremediation by Geostatistical Analysis of a Flux Fence (2012)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Wilson, R. D., & Lerner, D. N. (2012). Assessing TCE Source Bioremediation by Geostatistical Analysis of a Flux Fence. Groundwater, 50(6), 908-917. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00916.x

Mass discharge across transect planes is increasingly used as a metric for performance assessment of in situ groundwater remediation systems. Mass discharge estimates using concentrations measured in multilevel transects are often made by assuming a... Read More about Assessing TCE Source Bioremediation by Geostatistical Analysis of a Flux Fence.

Increasing confidence in treatment performance assessment using geostatistical methods (2011)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Cai, Z., & Wilson, R. (2011). Increasing confidence in treatment performance assessment using geostatistical methods. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds (213-216)

It is well established that the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) in aquifer systems represents a very long-term source of groundwater contamination. Significant effort in recent years has been focus... Read More about Increasing confidence in treatment performance assessment using geostatistical methods.

Increasing Confidence in Mass Discharge Estimates Using Geostatistical Methods (2011)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Wilson, R. D., Cardiff, M. A., & Kitanidis, P. K. (2011). Increasing Confidence in Mass Discharge Estimates Using Geostatistical Methods. Groundwater, 49(2), 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00709.x

Mass discharge is one metric rapidly gaining acceptance for assessing the performance of in situ groundwater remediation systems. Multilevel sampling transects provide the data necessary to make such estimates, often using the Thiessen Polygon method... Read More about Increasing Confidence in Mass Discharge Estimates Using Geostatistical Methods.

The Hyporheic Handbook: a handbook on the groundwater-surface water interface and hyporheic zone for environment managers (2009)
Report
Buss, S., Cai, Z., Cardenas, B., Fleckenstein, J., Hannah, D., Heppell, K., Hulme, P., Ibrahim, T., Kaeser, D., Krause, S., Lawler, D., Lerner, D., Mant, J., Malcolm, I., Old, G., Parkin, G., Pickup, R., Pinay, G., Porter, J., Rhodes, G., …Wood, P. (2009). The Hyporheic Handbook: a handbook on the groundwater-surface water interface and hyporheic zone for environment managers. Bristol: Environment Agency

Buss, S., Cai, Z., Cardenas, B., Fleckenstein, J., Hannah, D., Heppell, K., …Wood, P. (2009). The Hyporheic Handbook: a handbook on the groundwater-surface water interface and hyporheic zone for environment managers. Bristol: Environment Agency.

Zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating chlorinated solvent contaminants in fractured aquifers (2008)
Presentation / Conference Contribution
Cai, Z., Thomson, N., Lerner, D., Wlison, R., Mclaren, R., & Oswald, S. (2008). Zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating chlorinated solvent contaminants in fractured aquifers.

A novel remediation strategy, the zero-valent iron fracture reactive barrier (Fe0 FRB), is proposed to clean up chlorinated solvent pollution of groundwater in a fractured aquifer. A Fe0 FRB is an extended reactive zone where the fractures are partly... Read More about Zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating chlorinated solvent contaminants in fractured aquifers.

Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results (2007)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Merly, C., Thomson, N. R., Wilson, R. D., & Lerner, D. N. (2007). Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 93(1-4), 284-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2007.04.001

Technical developments have now made it possible to emplace granular zero-valent iron (Fe0) in fractured media to create a Fe0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe0 FRB) for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. To evaluate this concept, we conducted a... Read More about Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results.

Conceptual analysis of zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating a trichloroethylene plume in a chalk aquifer (2007)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Lerner, D. N., McLaren, R. G., & Wilson, R. D. (2007). Conceptual analysis of zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating a trichloroethylene plume in a chalk aquifer. Water Resources Research, 43(3), https://doi.org/10.1029/2006wr004946

A novel concept, the Fe0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe0 FRB), is proposed to clean up chlorinated solvent pollution of groundwater in a chalk aquifer. Iron particles, suspended in a viscous biodegradable gel, can be injected into selected fractures t... Read More about Conceptual analysis of zero-valent iron fracture reactive barriers for remediating a trichloroethylene plume in a chalk aquifer.

A lumped parameter approach to model the treatment of organic contaminants by a granular iron filled fracture (2005)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Thomson, N. R., Wilson, R. D., & Oswald, S. E. (2006). A lumped parameter approach to model the treatment of organic contaminants by a granular iron filled fracture. Advances in water resources, 29(4), 624-638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2005.07.004

Zero-valent iron permeable reactive barriers (Fe0-PRBs) have been widely used in unconsolidated media to treat certain dissolved phase organic contaminants, but little attention has been given to their application in fractured porous media. In princi... Read More about A lumped parameter approach to model the treatment of organic contaminants by a granular iron filled fracture.

Leaching from solid waste incineration ashes used in cement-treated base layers for pavements (2004)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Bager, D. H., & Christensen, T. (2004). Leaching from solid waste incineration ashes used in cement-treated base layers for pavements. Waste Management, 24(6), 603-612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2004.01.010

Waste incineration bottom ash and treated flue gas cleaning products mixed with 2.5% of cement (50 kg/m 3) were tested in the laboratory in terms of compressive strength and tank leaching tests over a 64-day period. Although the material displayed lo... Read More about Leaching from solid waste incineration ashes used in cement-treated base layers for pavements.

Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements (2003)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Jensen, D. L., Christensen, T. H., & Bager, D. H. (2003). Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements. Waste Management and Research, 21(1), 42-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242x0302100106

Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filler in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilise... Read More about Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements.

Evidence of Al-Cr interactions affecting Cr-leaching from waste incineration ashes (2002)
Journal Article
Cai, Z., Chen, D., Lundtorp, K., & Christensen, T. H. (2003). Evidence of Al-Cr interactions affecting Cr-leaching from waste incineration ashes. Waste Management, 23(1), 89-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X%2802%2900113-7

Leaching tests on flue gas ashes from waste incineration showed low leaching of Cr from ashes that under moist anaerobic conditions also produced hydrogen gas. In some cases, also the redox levels (aerobic/anaerobic conditions) during the leaching te... Read More about Evidence of Al-Cr interactions affecting Cr-leaching from waste incineration ashes.