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Eye-Tracking Assistive Technologies for Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Edughele, Hilary O; Zhang, Yinghui; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Vien, Quoc-Tuan; Morris-Cafiero, Haley; Opoku Agyeman, Michael


Hilary O Edughele

Yinghui Zhang

Quoc-Tuan Vien

Haley Morris-Cafiero

Michael Opoku Agyeman


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as ALS, is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in the loss of muscle control. For individuals with ALS, where mobility is limited to the movement of the eyes, the use of eye-tracking-based applications can be applied to achieve some basic tasks with certain digital interfaces. This paper presents a review of existing eye-tracking software and hardware through which eye-tracking their application is sketched as an assistive technology to cope with ALS. Eye-tracking also provides a suitable alternative as control of game elements. Furthermore, artificial intelligence has been utilized to improve eye-tracking technology with significant improvement in calibration and accuracy. Gaps in literature are highlighted in the study to offer a direction for future research.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Mar 23, 2022
Online Publication Date Apr 1, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Mar 25, 2022
Publicly Available Date Apr 1, 2022
Journal IEEE Access
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Pages 41938-41958
Keywords Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; artificial intelligence; assistive technology; eye-tracking
Public URL


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