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T-lymphocyte populations following a period of high volume training in female soccer players

Brown, F.F.; Bigley, A.B.; Ross, J.C.; LaVoy, E.C.; Simpson, R.J.; Galloway, S.D.R.

Authors

F.F. Brown

A.B. Bigley

J.C. Ross

E.C. LaVoy

R.J. Simpson

S.D.R. Galloway



Abstract

Purpose
To investigate the T-lymphocyte response to a period of increased training volume in trained females compared to habitual activity in female controls.

Methods
Thirteen trained female (19.8 ± 1.9 yrs) soccer players were monitored during a two-week long high volume training period (increased by 39%) and thirteen female untrained (20.5 ± 2.2 yrs) controls were monitored during two-weeks of habitual activity. Blood lymphocytes, collected at rest, were isolated before and after the two-week period. Isolated lymphocytes were assessed for the cell surface expression of the co-receptor CD28, a marker of T-lymphocyte naivety, and CD57 a marker used to identify highly-differentiated T-lymphocytes. Co-expression of these markers was identified on helper CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes. In addition a further population of γδ+ T-lymphocytes were identified. Plasma was used to determine Cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus.

Results
No difference was observed in the T-lymphocyte populations following the two-week period of increased volume training. At baseline the number of total CD3+, cytotoxic CD8+, naïve (CD8+ CD28+ CD57−), intermediate (CD8+ CD28+ CD57+) T-lymphocytes and the number and proportion of γδ+ T-lymphocytes were greater in the trained compared to the untrained females (p < 0.05). The proportion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes was greater in the untrained compared to the trained (p < 0.05), in turn the CD4+:CD8+ ratio was also greater in the untrained females (p < 0.05). Inclusion of percentage body fat as a covariate removed the main effect of training status in all T-lymphocyte sub-populations, with the exception of the γδ+ T-lymphocyte population. 8% of the untrained group was defined as positive for CMV whereas 23% of the trained group was positive for CMV. However, CMV was not a significant covariate in the analysis of T-lymphocyte proportions.

Conclusion
The period of high volume training had no effect on T-lymphocyte populations in trained females. However, baseline training status differences were evident between groups. This indicates that long-term exercise training, as opposed to short-term changes in exercise volume, appears to elicit discernible changes in the composition of the blood T-lymphocyte pool.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 28, 2015
Online Publication Date Sep 30, 2015
Publication Date 2015-12
Deposit Date Jan 12, 2023
Journal Physiology & Behavior
Print ISSN 0031-9384
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 152
Issue Part A
Pages 175-181
DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.09.027