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Thermography for Disease Detection in Livestock: A Scoping Review

McManus, Rosemary; Boden, Lisa; Weir, William; Viora, Lorenzo; Barker, Robert; Kim, Yunhyong; McBride, Pauline; Yang, Shufan


Rosemary McManus

Lisa Boden

William Weir

Lorenzo Viora

Robert Barker

Yunhyong Kim

Pauline McBride


Infra-red thermography (IRT) offers potential opportunities as a tool for disease detection in livestock. Despite considerable research in this area, there are no common standards or protocols for managing IRT parameters in animal disease detection research. In this review, we investigate parameters that are essential to the progression of this tool and make recommendations for their use based on the literature found and the veterinary thermography guidelines from the American Academy of Thermology. We analyzed a defined set of 109 articles concerned with the use of IRT in livestock related to disease and from these articles, parameters for accurate IRT were identified and sorted into the fields of camera-, animal- or environment-related categories to assess the practices of each article in reporting parameters. This review demonstrates the inconsistencies in practice across peer-reviewed articles and reveals that some important parameters are completely unreported while others are incorrectly captured and/or under-represented in the literature. Further to this, our review highlights the lack of measured emissivity values for live animals in multiple species. We present guidelines for the standards of parameters that should be used and reported in future experiments and discuss potential opportunities and challenges associated with using IRT for disease detection in livestock.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 15, 2022
Online Publication Date Aug 9, 2022
Publication Date Aug 9, 2022
Deposit Date Jul 15, 2022
Publicly Available Date Aug 9, 2022
Journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Publisher Frontiers Media
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Article Number 965622
Keywords surveillance, veterinary, disease, thermography, livestock, infra-red
Public URL


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