Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Implementation and Evaluation of Physical, Hybrid, and Virtual Testbeds for Cybersecurity Analysis of Industrial Control Systems

Robles-Durazno, Andres; Moradpoor, Naghmeh; McWhinnie, James; Russell, Gordon; Porcel-Bustamante, Jorge


Andres Robles-Durazno

James McWhinnie

Jorge Porcel-Bustamante


Industrial Control Systems are an essential part of our daily lives and can be found in industries such as oil, utilities, and manufacturing. Rapid growth in technology has introduced industrial components with network capabilities that allow them to communicate with traditional computer networks, thus increasing their exposure to cyber-attacks. Current research on Industrial Control Systems suffer from lack of technical information as these systems are part of critical infrastructures. To overcome this, researchers have employed different types of testbeds to develop their mechanisms of cyber-attack detection and prevention. This manuscript describes, implements, and evaluates physical, hybrid, and virtual application of a clean water supply system developed for cybersecurity research. The results show that physical testbeds allow an understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of control components like sensors and actuators, which might be affected by external influences such as noise, vibration, temperature, and non-ideal device behaviour. Although, hybrid testbeds reduce the cost of implementation, they ignore the physical dynamics of the system as explained above. Virtual testbeds are the cheapest option in comparison with physical and hybrid testbeds; however, they provide a limited view of the control system operation that could have negative consequences when developing a detection/prevention system.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 19, 2021
Online Publication Date Mar 23, 2021
Publication Date 2021-03
Deposit Date Mar 22, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jun 27, 2023
Journal Symmetry
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 3
Article Number 519
Keywords clean water supply system; critical infrastructures; SCADA
Public URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations