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Beyond cycle lanes and large-scale infrastructure: a scoping review of initiatives that groups and organisations can implement to promote cycling for the Cycle Nation Project

Kelly, Paul; Williamson, Chlo�; Baker, Graham; Davis, Adrian; Broadfield, Sarah; Coles, Allison; Connell, Hayley; Logan, Greig; Pell, Jill P.; Gray, Cindy M.; Gill, Jason M.R.

Authors

Paul Kelly

Chlo� Williamson

Graham Baker

Sarah Broadfield

Allison Coles

Hayley Connell

Greig Logan

Jill P. Pell

Cindy M. Gray

Jason M.R. Gill



Abstract

Background/objectives: Cycling has well-established positive relationships with health. Evidence suggests that large-scale infrastructure and built-environment initiatives to promote cycling are likely to be necessary but not sufficient to maximise cycling participation. Smaller-scale initiatives that can be implemented by organisations (eg, employers) and groups (eg, community groups) are therefore also important, but the full range of feasible activities to promote cycling is not known. We aimed to scope the literature and map organisational, social and individual level activities to increase cycling.

Methods
Design: Scoping review following an established five-stage process.

Eligibility criteria: Studies or publicly available reports describing cycling promotion initiatives deemed feasible for organisations or groups to implement.

Sources of evidence and selection: (i) online databases (Ovid (Medline), Ovid (Embase), SportDISCUS (Ebscohost), ProQuest, Web of Science), (ii) existing systematic reviews, (iii) expert stakeholder consultation.

Results: We extracted data from 129 studies and reports, from 20 different countries, identifying 145 cycling promotion initiatives. From these initiatives we identified 484 actions within 93 action types within 33 action categories under the nine intervention functions described by Michie et al. Environmental restructuring (micro-level), enablement, education and persuasion were the functions with the most action types, while coercion, modelling and restriction had the fewest action types.

Conclusion: This is the first comprehensive map to summarise the broad range of action types feasible for implementation within organisation/group-based cycling promotion initiatives. The map will be a critical tool for communities, employers, practitioners and researchers in designing interventions to increase cycling.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Jan 27, 2020
Online Publication Date Apr 8, 2020
Publication Date 2020-11
Deposit Date Jul 6, 2020
Publicly Available Date Jul 6, 2020
Journal British Journal of Sports Medicine
Print ISSN 0306-3674
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 54
Issue 23
Pages 1405-1415
DOI https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-101447
Public URL http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/Output/2674198

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Beyond cycle lanes and large-scale infrastructure: a scoping review of initiatives that groups and organisations can implement to promote cycling for the Cycle Nation Project (1.3 Mb)
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Publisher Licence URL
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

Copyright Statement
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.





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