Modelling motorcycles driving cycles and emissions in Edinburgh
The level of ownership and use of motorcycling has increased rapidly in Edinburgh and the UK in the last ten years. In this study, motorcycle driving cycles (rural and urban) were developed for Edinburgh (Edinburgh Motorcycle Driving cycle-EMDC). The analysis of EMDC demonstrates that motorcycles‘ driving behaviour differs between urban and rural areas. EMDC shows a typical transient nature of speed, acceleration and deceleration, which is also different from regulatory driving cycles (Economic Commission for Europe-ECE and World Motorcycle Test Cycle-WMTC) and examples from Asia (Taiwan, Bangkok and China). This research underlines the need for detailed investigations of driving cycles in any local condition. It is not generally feasible for a driving cycle developed in one area to be applicable in another area, even with some similar characteristics.
Emission factors were also estimated using onboard, laboratory and micro simulation measurements along the test corridor (Air Quality Management Area-AQMA). Laboratory measurements were carried out by applying a number
of standard driving cycles (ECE and WMTC) and the derived EMDCs.
Results show that the emission factors (EFs) calculated in the laboratory for carbon monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbons (HC) are higher for the urban EMDC cycle compared to the standard regulatory factors than they are for the rural (except Nitrogen Oxide-NOx). Laboratory emission factors for CO and HC for the urban EMDC were found to be higher than the micro-simulation and onboard methods. EFs obtained from micro-simulation and onboard emissions using the National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) emission coefficients were not very different with the exception of NOx, which were relatively higher than those of EMDC.
Micro simulation models were mainly developed for private cars and therefore special care should be taken when using them for modelling other conditions (e.g. motorcycles driving characteristics). This study illustrates the extent to which micro-simulation may be utilised to accurately model emissions and discusses the refinements required to model motorcycle motion (hence emission) accurately in micro simulation.
The study provides a platform for a large number of potential future applications for the evaluation of emissions and for developing various policy scenarios of pollution reduction and reducing health impacts at local levels.
Kumar, R. Modelling motorcycles driving cycles and emissions in Edinburgh. (Thesis). Edinburgh Napier University. Retrieved from http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/id/eprint/3047
|Deposit Date||Nov 9, 2009|
|Peer Reviewed||Not Peer Reviewed|
|Keywords||Motorcycling; Edinburgh area; Surveys; Speed variations; Driving cycles identified; Emissions measured; Micro-simulations applied;|
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