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Vascular Ageing and Exercise: Focus on Cellular Reparative Processes

Ross, Mark D.; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint

Authors

Mark D. Ross



Abstract

Ageing is associated with an increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increased risk can be attributable to increased prolonged exposure to oxidative stress. Often, CVD is preceded by endothelial dysfunction, which carries with it a proatherothrombotic phenotype. Endothelial senescence and reduced production and release of nitric oxide (NO) are associated with “vascular ageing” and are often accompanied by a reduced ability for the body to repair vascular damage, termed “reendothelialization.” Exercise has been repeatedly shown to confer protection against CVD and diabetes risk and incidence. Regular exercise promotes endothelial function and can prevent endothelial senescence, often through a reduction in oxidative stress. Recently, endothelial precursors, endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), have been shown to repair damaged endothelium, and reduced circulating number and/or function of these cells is associated with ageing. Exercise can modulate both number and function of these cells to promote endothelial homeostasis. In this review we look at the effects of advancing age on the endothelium and these endothelial precursors and how exercise appears to offset this “vascular ageing” process.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Aug 20, 2015
Publication Date 2016
Deposit Date Mar 21, 2016
Publicly Available Date Dec 31, 2016
Journal Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Print ISSN 1942-0900
Electronic ISSN 1942-0994
Publisher Hindawi
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 2016
Pages 1-15
DOI https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3583956
Keywords Vascular ageing; exercise;
Public URL http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/id/eprint/9700
Publisher URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3583956
Contract Date Mar 21, 2016

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Publisher Licence URL
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Copyright Statement
Copyright © 2016 Mark D. Ross et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.




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