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Eco-friendly 3D Printing Mortar with Low Cement Content: Investigation on Printability and Mechanical Properties

Sukontasukkul, Piti; Komkham, Sila; Jamnam, Sittisak; Zhang, Hexin; Fujikake, Kazunori; Puttiwongrak, Avirut; Hansapinyo, Chayanon


Piti Sukontasukkul

Sila Komkham

Sittisak Jamnam

Kazunori Fujikake

Avirut Puttiwongrak

Chayanon Hansapinyo


The conventional approach to achieving optimal printability and buildability in 3D printing mortar relies heavily on cement, which is both costly and environmentally detrimental due to substantial carbon emissions from its production. This study aims to mitigate these issues by investigating the viability of slag as a partial substitute for cement, with the goal of developing an eco-friendly alternative. The newly formulated mortar, featuring a 30% reduction in cement content (from 830 to 581 kg/m3) and the inclusion of 0.10% micro-fibers, exhibits properties comparable to conventional 3D printing mortar. The research is structured into two parts: Part 1 focuses on determining the optimal fiber content, while Part 2 delves into the investigation of fiber-reinforced mortar with reduced cement content for 3D printing. Criteria were established to ensure mortar flow at 115%, initial printable time below 60 minutes, and 7-day compressive strength exceeding 28 MPa. Part 1 results indicate that a fiber content of 0.1% by volume meets the specified requirements. In Part 2, it was observed that increasing the slag replacement percentage extended the initial printable time and time gap. However, even at a 30% replacement rate, the initial printable time remained within the acceptable range, partially attributed to the presence of fibers in the mix. Additionally, higher slag content led to increased flow and reduced filament height in the mixes. Notably, all formulations surpassed the 7-day compressive strength threshold. These findings underscore the potential of slag as a sustainable alternative to cement in 3D printing fiber-reinforced mortar, offering promising prospects for environmentally friendly construction practices.


Sukontasukkul, P., Komkham, S., Jamnam, S., Zhang, H., Fujikake, K., Puttiwongrak, A., & Hansapinyo, C. (2024). Eco-friendly 3D Printing Mortar with Low Cement Content: Investigation on Printability and Mechanical Properties. Civil Engineering Journal, 10(3),

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 27, 2024
Publication Date 2024
Deposit Date Feb 27, 2024
Publicly Available Date Apr 25, 2024
Print ISSN 2676-6957
Electronic ISSN 2476-3055
Publisher Salehan Institute of Higher Education
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 10
Issue 3
Keywords 3D printing; Eco-friendly cement mortar; Slag; Cement replacement; Printable cement mortar; Sustainability construction
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