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Vital Conditions to Remove Pollutants from Synthetic Wastewater Using Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum

Mooralitharan, Silambarasi; Mohd Hanafiah, Zarimah; Abd Manan, Teh Sabariah Binti; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Wan Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini


Silambarasi Mooralitharan

Zarimah Mohd Hanafiah

Teh Sabariah Binti Abd Manan

Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad Wan-Mohtar

Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar


Mycoremediation, a fungal-based technology, has seen tremendous growth as an effective alternative to treat industrial wastewater due to its ability to oxidise pollutant loadings. Considering the non-toxic properties and high potential degradation performance of Ganoderma lucidum, this research aims to study the performance of a Malaysian G. lucidum strain, the effect of agitation speed, and different carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio concentrations of synthetic wastewater in degrading chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. Different agitation speeds (25 rpm, 50 rpm and 100 rpm) and C/N ratios (C10N1, C13.3N1 and C16.7N1) were chosen as parameters to be analysed in this study. The best degradation of COD and ammonia with a percentage removal in the range of 95% to 100% within 30 h of treatment. ANOVA analysis was done using the response surface methodology to verify the obtained results, and it was found that mycoremediation using 100 rpm agitation provided the best results, removing more than 95% of COD and ammonia from synthetic wastewater. The microscopic analysis also showed that the structure of G. lucidum changed after wastewater treatment. This result proved that the Malaysian G. lucidum strain has a good potential in treating synthetic domestic wastewater, especially with high organic content, as a naturally sustainable bioremediation system.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 15, 2023
Online Publication Date Feb 20, 2023
Publication Date 2023-02
Deposit Date Feb 20, 2023
Publicly Available Date Feb 20, 2023
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 4
Article Number 3819
Keywords Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum; synthetic domestic wastewater; chemical oxygen demand; ammonia; mycoremediation
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