Accurate identification of the hip joint centre (HJC) is crucial for the correct estimation of knee and hip joint loads and kinematics, which is particularly relevant in orthopaedic surgery and musculoskeletal modelling. Several methods have been described for calculation of the HJC in humans, however, no studies have used these methods in the horse despite a similar need for improved evaluation of hip joint biomechanics in rehabilitation and musculoskeletal modelling. This preliminary study uses the commonly used functional method (least-squares sphere fit) to determine the HJC in three equid cadavers. Bone pins with reflective markers attached were drilled into the tuber coxae (TC), tuber ischium (TI), tuber sacrale (TS), greater trochanter (GT), third trochanter (TT) and lateral femoral condyle (FC) of the uppermost limb of the cadavers positioned in lateral recumbency. Three repetitions of passive movements consisting of pro-and retraction, ab- and adduction and circumduction were performed. The HJC was calculated using a least-squares sphere fitting method and presented as a distance from the TC based on a percentage of the TC to TI vector magnitude. Mean (± standard deviation) of the HJC is located 52.4% (± 3.9) caudally, 0.2% (± 6.5) dorsally, and 19.8% (± 4.2) medially from the TC. This study is the first to quantify the HJC in horses ex vivo using a functional method. Further work (in vivo and imaging) is required to validate the findings of the present study.
Valentin, S., Peham, C., Zsoldos, R. R., & Licka, T. F. (2017). A sphere fitting approach to determine the hip joint centre of the horse. Comparative Exercise Physiology, 13(2), 113-118. https://doi.org/10.3920/CEP160039