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Kinetic analysis of felines landing from different heights

Wang, Meizi; Song, Yang; Valentin, Stephanie; Baker, Julien S.; Gu, Yaodong

Authors

Meizi Wang

Yang Song

Julien S. Baker

Yaodong Gu



Abstract

Background
Kinetic motion analysis has been used in canines and equines as a fundamental objective evaluation measurement. Cats are very capable jumpers, and this ability has biomimetic applications. It is essential to understand movement patterns and physical adaptations of this species, as cats are popular pets for humans. Further to this, motion analysis of a cat’s movement patterns may provide potentially valuable information in relation to limb disease and injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate kinetic differences in cats when landing from varying preselected controlled heights.

Methods
The peak vertical force (PVF) and paw contact area (CA) of both the forelimbs and hindlimbs were collected from seven healthy Chinese domesticated cats while landing from heights of 30 cm, 50 cm, 70 cm and 90 cm respectively. The falling motivation for the cats was facilitated with the use of a flip board. This device provided the basis for the cats to land passively.

Results
The results indicated that the PVF of all examined limbs (fore right, fore left, hind right, hind left) significantly increased as the height increased. When the PVF from the hindlimbs and forelimbs were compared, the forelimbs recorded significantly greater values for all heights examined (P < 0.001). The PVF of the hindlimbs was symmetrical at all heights, but forelimb symmetry only occurred at the lower heights. The hindlimbs demonstrated larger CA than the forelimbs measured from all heights on landing (P < 0.001). Moreover, the paw CA on the left and right limbs were symmetrical.

Discussion
The paw CA of cats may be an effective parameter to evaluate abnormalities or diseases in the limbs of cats. Additionally, these findings highlight how cats land from varying heights, which may also provide reference values for the bionic design of artificial limbs for felines and treatment for limb diseases in this species.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 7, 2019
Online Publication Date Nov 12, 2019
Publication Date Nov 12, 2019
Deposit Date Feb 8, 2023
Publicly Available Date Feb 8, 2023
Journal PeerJ
Publisher PeerJ
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Article Number e8007
DOI https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8007
Keywords Landing, Motion analysis, Kinetics, Cat, Bionics design

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