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Translation and validation of the Hindi‐Indian version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised

Tiwari, Surya Kant; Murry, Levis; Joshi, Poonam; Tallanao, Thuileiphy; Zined, Rubi; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Martin, Colin R.


Surya Kant Tiwari

Levis Murry

Poonam Joshi

Thuileiphy Tallanao

Rubi Zined

Colin R. Martin


Critical to maternal outcome and development of a healthy and relationship between mother and baby, is the woman's perception of her birth experience. The Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R) has been demonstrated to be psychometrically robust, easily administered, and scored self-report measure of birth experience. Aim of the study was to translate the UK-BSS-R into Hindi, collect data, and psychometrically validate an Indian (Hindi)-BSS-R.

Psychometric assessment of the Indian (Hindi)-BSS-R was undertaken following translation using a cross-sectional design. Evaluation of known-groups validity was undertaken using an embedded between-subjects component. Data were collected from (n = 312) postnatal Hindi speaking women in India. Measurement characteristics were assessed using confirmatory factor analysis, divergent validity and internal consistency analysis.

The measurement properties of the Indian (Hindi)-BSS-R were observed to be equivocal, with the established tri-dimensional measurement model not achieving best fit to data. Instead, an alternative two-factor model offered an excellent fit to data. Significant differences were observed between Indian (Hindi)-BSS-R scores and family type and gestation term status, which highlights the relevance of these contextual aspects to the Indian birth experience. Internal consistency was observed to be low on some sub-scales, indicating the potential need for future revision.

The Indian (Hindi)-BSS-R is a measure of birth experience, which accepting some measurement caveats, is acceptable for use with Hindi speaking women in India. Further research is required to determine if modification of some of the items is required to improve internal consistency.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 28, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 2, 2023
Publication Date 2023-03
Deposit Date Jan 5, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jan 3, 2024
Journal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Print ISSN 1341-8076
Electronic ISSN 1447-0756
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 49
Issue 3
Pages 938-945
Keywords birth experience, birth satisfaction, psychometrics, scales
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Translation and validation of the Hindi-Indian version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R) (306 Kb)

Copyright Statement
"This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Tiwari, S. K., Murry, L., Joshi, P., Tallanao, T., Zined, R., Hollins Martin, C. J., & Martin, C. R. (2023). Translation and validation of the Hindi‐Indian version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale‐Revised. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited."

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