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An Overview of Current Printing Technologies for Large-Scale Perovskite Solar Cell Development

Valsalakumar, Sreeram; Roy, Anurag; Mallick, Tapas K.; Hinshelwood, Justin; Sundaram, Senthilarasu


Sreeram Valsalakumar

Anurag Roy

Tapas K. Mallick

Justin Hinshelwood


The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have seen significant performance improvements between 2012 and 2022. PSCs have excellent optoelectronic properties and can be built using low-cost materials. In order to compete with first-generation photovoltaic technologies, it will be necessary to scale up production. This review article explores the advancements in several scalable perovskite deposition techniques, including recent developments in the fabrication of high-quality perovskite film, their stabilities and commercialization status. Several scalable deposition techniques are discussed, including user-friendly solution-techniques (spin coating, slot die coating, etc.), vapour-assisted deposition approaches in the laboratory and full-scale commercial applications. The aforementioned deposition techniques have advantages compared to deposition techniques based on cost, effective mask-less patterning and unparalleled-design freedom. Other potential advantages include optimal use of materials, scalability, contactless deposition in high-resolution and a rapid transformation from small laboratory-scale work to large industrial-scale roll-to-roll production. Most recent technological advancements and structural developments relate to long-term thermal stability and moisture resistance. Many of the developments are still in the evolving field of lab-scale devices. The improvement roadmap and commercialization aspects of PSC manufacture involve two significant milestones: bridging the gap between the performance characteristics of small-scale and large-scale devices and the scalable printing techniques for all the layers in the device.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 20, 2022
Online Publication Date Dec 24, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Jan 9, 2023
Publicly Available Date Jan 9, 2023
Journal Energies
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 16
Issue 1
Article Number 190
Keywords commercial, fabrication, large-scale, perovskite, printing
Public URL


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