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A Review on Cadmium and Lead Contamination: Sources, Fate, Mechanism, Health Effects and Remediation Methods

Bouida, Leila; Rafatullah, Mohd; Kerrouche, Abdelfateh; Qutob, Mohammad; Alosaimi, Abeer M.; Alorfi, Hajer S.; Hussein, Mahmoud A.


Leila Bouida

Mohd Rafatullah

Mohammad Qutob

Abeer M. Alosaimi

Hajer S. Alorfi

Mahmoud A. Hussein


Cadmium and lead soil contamination is a widespread environmental problem that requires profound and sustainable solutions. These toxic elements can be naturally occurring on the Earth’s crust or from man-made origins. Cadmium and lead could accumulate and translocate in soil over the long term. Thus, their risk of entering the food chain is extremely elevated and their effects on the living organisms in the food web are of great concern. The main purpose of this review study is to emphasize the risk to human health of cadmium and lead as an environmental contaminant in soil and plants. Human exposure to cadmium and lead can cause severe illness; for instance, long-term exposure to cadmium can alter kidney health and cause dysfunction. Additionally, lead threatens the nervous system and causes countless diseases. Hence, the remediation of cadmium and lead from soil before they enter the food chain remains essential, and regular monitoring of their principal sources is crucially needed for a sustainable soil ecosystem.


Bouida, L., Rafatullah, M., Kerrouche, A., Qutob, M., Alosaimi, A. M., Alorfi, H. S., & Hussein, M. A. (2022). A Review on Cadmium and Lead Contamination: Sources, Fate, Mechanism, Health Effects and Remediation Methods. Water, 14(21), Article 3432.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 21, 2022
Online Publication Date Oct 28, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Nov 21, 2022
Publicly Available Date Nov 21, 2022
Journal Water
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 21
Article Number 3432
Keywords cadmium and lead contamination; anthropogenic source; soil and plant; public health; diseases
Public URL


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