This work is aimed to investigate conductivity and temperature of a solution by using energy autonomous thick film sensors. A RuO 2 based thick film electrode is fabricated for conductivity sensor and an interdigitated electrode with graphite sensitive electrode is used for temperature sensor. The operating range of 10-1000 μS/cm of the conductivity sensor shows its applicability in portable, tap and river water quality monitoring. The sensitivity of the temperature sensor in the range of 25-45°C is found to be 0.280/°C. For self-powered application, a hybrid integration of solar cell and flexible supercapacitor (SC) was successfully used. The performance of SC shows that at 0.5 rnA the SC can store an energy of 2μW/cm 2 with a power density of 0.05 mW/cm 2 , The charging of SC was carried out by using solar cell and the stored charge is used to operate conductivity and temperature sensors.
Manjakkal, L., Nikbakhtnasrabadi, F., & Dahiya, R. (2018). Energy Autonomous Sensors for Water Quality Monitoring. . https://doi.org/10.1109/icsens.2018.8589564