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Screen Printed Thick Film Reference Electrodes for Electrochemical Sensing

Manjakkal, Libu; Vilouras, Anastasios; Dahiya, Ravinder


Anastasios Vilouras

Ravinder Dahiya


This paper presents printed thick film Ag|AgCl|KCl reference electrodes (RE) for electrochemical sensors. The screenprinted REs with 10-μm thick glass-KCl salt matrix layer exhibit a stable potential of 5 mV. Cyclic voltammetric analysis shows that the anodic and cathodic peak current of the RE increases with the scan rate in the range of 25-150 mVs -1 . The analytical performance of the REs shows a stable open circuit potential for the NaCl concentrations in the range of 30-100 mM. Testing the presented REs for electrochemical pH sensor application (with RuO 2 -based sensitive electrode) the sensitivity of 55 mV/pH was noted in the pH range of 4.5-9. Evaluating the effect of temperature on the performance of REs, a potential variation of -3.8 mV/ °C was observed. Finally, a LabVIEW interface was developed to store, analyze, and calculate the sensitivity of the sensor under different temperature conditions. The LabVIEW interface can also be used to calculate the pH-value/temperature of unknown solutions under known temperature/pH conditions.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 16, 2018
Online Publication Date May 28, 2018
Publication Date Oct 1, 2018
Deposit Date Jul 19, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jul 20, 2022
Journal IEEE Sensors Journal
Print ISSN 1530-437X
Electronic ISSN 1558-1748
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Issue 19
Pages 7779-7785
Keywords Reference electrodes, pH sensor, thick film sensors, electrochemical studies, screen printing
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