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Microwave sensor for liquid mixture identification based on composite right left hand-zero-order resonator for sensitivity improvement

Hocine, Sekkache; Lashab, Mohamed; Belattar, Mounir; Ouchtati, Salim; See, Chan Hwang; Hu, Yim-Fun; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.


Sekkache Hocine

Mohamed Lashab

Mounir Belattar

Salim Ouchtati

Yim-Fun Hu

Raed A. Abd-Alhameed


This work aims to present an improved version of the liquid mixture identification sensor, the proposed sensor is tested experimentaly on mixture of water ethanol, the identification of liquid is based on the measurement of frequency displacement, and comparison with reference values of water ethanol. This device is based on metamaterial structure which is a CRLH (composite right left hand) resonator with ZOR (Zero Order Resonator). The CRLH in addition to its property of miniaturization effect, when combined with ZOR, the resonant frequency of various volume fraction are extended, which make the sensitivity higher. The high sensitivity of the sensor is obtained by an optimum choice of the CRLH components. The geometrical size of the sensor is 20 mm by 11 mm. It was printed on a RT/Duroid 5880 substrate with a very short testing surface area of 4 mm by 8 mm, the liquid is placed on the top side of the sensor, exactly on the CRLH structure. Three prototypes of sensors operating from 1 GHz to 3 GHz are proposed, designed and simulated using the commercial software HFSS (high-frequency structural simulator). The main advantages of this work is first miaturization effect, second high sensitivity and finaly a wide range of liquid can be tested with this sensor. To prove the working principle, ethanol with different volume fractions was adopted as a liquid under test, the obtained results present very good agreement with the literature and suggested that it is a miniaturised and high sensitive candidate (better than 1.38%) for liquid mixture identification.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 18, 2022
Online Publication Date Jul 30, 2022
Publication Date 2022-11
Deposit Date Jul 18, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jul 19, 2022
Print ISSN 1096-4290
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 32
Issue 11
Article Number e23337
Keywords Sensor; Sensitivity; CRLH; ZOR; Ethanol; Liquid mixture; Volume fraction
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