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Monitoring of Pollutants Content in Bottled and Tap Drinking Water in Italy

Russo, Giacomo; Laneri, Sonia; Di Lorenzo, Ritamaria; Neri, Ilaria; Dini, Irene; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Grumetto, Lucia


Sonia Laneri

Ritamaria Di Lorenzo

Ilaria Neri

Irene Dini

Roberto Ciampaglia

Lucia Grumetto


The concentration levels of thirteen organic pollutants and selected heavy metals were investigated in 40 plastics bottled and tap water samples. Some of the selected contaminants have an ascertained or suspected endocrine disrupting activity, such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogs, and Bis 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which are used by industries as plasticizers. The most frequently detected pollutants were Bisphenol AF (BPAF) (detection frequency (DF) = 67.5%, mean 387.21 ng L−1), DEHP (DF = 62.5%, mean 46.19 µg L−1) and BPA (DF = 60.0%, mean 458.57 ng L−1), with higher concentration levels found in tap waters. Furthermore, a possible level of exposure to thirteen pollutants via drinking water intake was calculated. Our findings show that, even though the occurrence of contaminants and heavy metals in drinking waters does not pose an immediate, acute health risk for the population, their levels should be constantly monitored and “hard-wired” into everyday practice. Indeed, the health impact to the continuous and simultaneous intake of a huge variety of xenobiotics from various sources by humans is complex and still not fully understood.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 17, 2022
Online Publication Date Jun 21, 2022
Publication Date Jul 1, 2022
Deposit Date Jun 24, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jun 24, 2022
Journal Molecules
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 27
Issue 13
Article Number 3990
Keywords drinking water; endocrine disruptors; bisphenols; DEHP; water monitoring; heavy metals
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