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Glucose level detection using millimetre-wave metamaterial-inspired resonator

Qureshi, Suhail Asghar; Abidin, Zuhairiah Zainal; Elamin, N. I. M.; A. Majid, Huda; Ashyap, Adel Y. I.; Nebhen, Jamel; Kamarudin, M. R.; See, Chan Hwang; Abd-Alhameed, R. A.


Suhail Asghar Qureshi

Zuhairiah Zainal Abidin

N. I. M. Elamin

Huda A. Majid

Adel Y. I. Ashyap

Jamel Nebhen

M. R. Kamarudin

R. A. Abd-Alhameed


Millimetre-wave frequencies are promising for sensitive detection of glucose levels in the blood, where the temperature effect is insignificant. All these features provide the feasibility of continuous, portable, and accurate monitoring of glucose levels. This paper presents a metamaterial-inspired resonator comprising five split-rings to detect glucose levels at 24.9 GHz. The plexiglass case containing blood is modelled on the sensor’s surface and the structure is simulated for the glucose levels in blood from 50 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl. The novelty of the sensor is demonstrated by the capability to sense the normal glucose levels at millimetre-wave frequencies. The dielectric characteristics of the blood are modelled by using the Debye parameters. The proposed design can detect small changes in the dielectric properties of blood caused by varying glucose levels. The variation in the transmission coefficient for each glucose level tested in this study is determined by the quality factor and resonant frequency. The sensor presented can detect the change in the quality factor of transmission response up to 2.71/mg/dl. The sensor's performance has also been tested to detect diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. The sensor showed a linear shift in resonant frequency with the change in glucose levels, and an R2 of 0.9976 was obtained by applying regression analysis. Thus, the sensor can be used to monitor glucose in a normal range as well as at extreme levels.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 14, 2022
Online Publication Date Jun 29, 2022
Publication Date Jun 29, 2022
Deposit Date May 16, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jun 29, 2022
Journal PLOS ONE
Print ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 17
Issue 6
Article Number e0269060
Keywords Glucose; metamaterial; resonator; biosensor; IoMT
Public URL


Glucose Level Detection Using Millimetre-wave Metamaterial-inspired Resonator (3 Mb)

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