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Prevalence and Predictors of ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD in Young People

Redican, Enya; Hyland, Philip; Cloitre, Marylene; McBride, Orla; Karatzias, Thanos; Murphy, Jamie; Bunting, Lisa; Shevlin, Mark


Enya Redican

Philip Hyland

Marylene Cloitre

Orla McBride

Jamie Murphy

Lisa Bunting

Mark Shevlin


Objective: The prevalence, construct validity, risk factors and psychopathological correlates associated with ICD-11 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD) as measured by the International Trauma Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ITQ-CA) were assessed in a sample of young people from Northern Ireland.
Method: Participants were trauma-exposed 11–19-year-olds (N=507) who participated in the Northern Ireland Youth Wellbeing Prevalence Survey (YSW-NI, 2020). Factor mixture modelling (FMM) was used to test the latent structure of the ITQ-CA. Risk-factors and psychopathological correlates associated with latent class membership, and ICD-11diagnostic status, were also investigated.
Results: More participants met the ITQ-CA criteria for CPTSD (3.4%, n=44) than PTSD (1.5%, n=19). A second-order FMM comprising a ‘partial-PTSD class’, a ‘CPTSD class’, a ‘DSO class’ and a ‘low symptom endorsement class’ was the best-fitting model. Younger age and cumulative trauma were risk factors for all trauma classes. Female gender and two or more violent traumas were significant predictors of the ‘PTSD’ and ‘CPTSD’ classes, while single sexual trauma was a significant predictor of the ‘DSO’ and ‘CPTSD’ classes. Two or more sexual traumas was a unique predictor of ‘CPTSD class’, while two or more vicarious traumas was a unique predictor of ‘DSO class’. The ‘CPTSD’ class displayed the most notable comorbidity.
Conclusions: Findings indicate that CPTSD may be more prevalent than PTSD in children and young people. Support for the ICD-11 conceptualisation of CPTSD as representing a unique diagnostic construct was supported using FMM, with findings indicating trauma symptom class specific risk profiles.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 26, 2022
Online Publication Date May 3, 2022
Publication Date 2022-08
Deposit Date Apr 29, 2022
Publicly Available Date Apr 29, 2022
Journal Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Print ISSN 0001-690X
Electronic ISSN 1600-0447
Publisher Wiley
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 146
Issue 2
Pages 110-125
Keywords Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Complex PTSD, child and adolescent International Trauma Questionnaire, Factor Mixture Modelling, ICD-11
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