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SDORP: SDN based Opportunistic Routing for Asynchronous Wireless Sensor Networks

Farooq, Muhammad; Wang, Xingfu; Hawbani, Ammar; Zhao, Liang; Al-Dubai, Ahmed; Busaileh, Omar


Muhammad Farooq

Xingfu Wang

Ammar Hawbani

Liang Zhao

Omar Busaileh


In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), it is inappropriate to use conventional unicast routing due to the broadcast storm problem and spatial diversity of communication links. Opportunistic Routing (OR) benefits the low duty-cycled WSNs by prioritizing the multiple candidates for each node instead of selecting one node as in conventional unicast routing. OR reduces the sender waiting time, but it also suffers from the duplicate packets problem due to multiple candidates waking up simultaneously. The number of candidates should be restricted to counterbalance between the sender waiting time and duplicate packets. In this paper, software-defined networking (SDN) is adapted for the flexible management of WSNs by allowing the decoupling of the control plane from the sensor nodes. This study presents an SDN based load balanced opportunistic routing for duty-cycled WSNs that addresses two parts. First, the candidates are computed and controlled in the control plane. Second, the metric used to prioritize the candidates considers the average of three probability distributions, namely transmission distance distribution, expected number of hops distribution and residual energy distribution so that more traffic is guided through the nodes with higher priority. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol can significantly improve the network lifetime, routing efficiency, energy consumption, sender waiting time and duplicate packets as compared with the benchmarks.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 3, 2022
Online Publication Date Mar 11, 2022
Publication Date 2023-08
Deposit Date Mar 8, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 11, 2022
Journal IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Print ISSN 1536-1233
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Issue 8
Pages 4912-4929
Keywords Asynchronous wireless sensor networks, opportunistic routing, load balancing, duty-cycle
Public URL


SDORP: SDN Based Opportunistic Routing For Asynchronous Wireless Sensor Networks (accepted version) (9.8 Mb)

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