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Dynamic S-Box and PWLCM-Based Robust Watermarking Scheme

Sher Khan, Jan; Ko� Kayhan, Sema; Siddiq Ahmed, Saygin; Ahmad, Jawad; Ayesha Siddiqa, Hafza; Ahmed, Fawad; Ghaleb, Baraq; Al Dubai, Ahmed


Jan Sher Khan

Sema Ko� Kayhan

Saygin Siddiq Ahmed

Hafza Ayesha Siddiqa

Fawad Ahmed


Due to the increased number of cyberattacks, numerous researchers are motivated towards the design of such schemes that can hide digital information in a signal. Watermarking is one of the promising technologies that can protect digital information. However, traditional watermarking schemes are either slow or less secure. In this paper, a dynamic S-Box based efficient watermarking scheme is presented. The original image was extracted at the receiver’s end without any loss of sensitive information. Firstly, the Secure Hash Algorithm is applied to the original image for the generation of the initial condition. Piece Wise Linear Chaotic Map is then used to generate 16 × 16 dynamic Substitution Box (S-Box). As an additional security feature, the watermark is substituted through dynamic S-Box. Hence, it is hard for the eavesdroppers to attack the proposed scheme due to the dynamic nature of S-Box. Lastly, lifting wavelet transform is applied to the host image and the High Low and High High blocks of host image are replaced with least significant bits and most significant bits of the substituted watermark, respectively. Robustness, efficiency and security of the proposed scheme is verified using Structure Similarity Index, Structure Dissimilarity Index, Structure Content, Mutual Information, energy, entropy, correlation tests and classical attacks analysis.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 31, 2022
Online Publication Date Feb 25, 2022
Publication Date 2022-07
Deposit Date Mar 17, 2022
Publicly Available Date Mar 17, 2022
Journal Wireless Personal Communications
Print ISSN 0929-6212
Electronic ISSN 1572-834X
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 125
Pages 513-530
Keywords Watermarking, Chaos, PWLCM, LSBs, MSBs, Random numbers
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