Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Wireless Electromagnetic Radiation Assessment Based on the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR): A Review Case Study

Abdul-Al, Mohamed; Amar, Ahmed S.I.; Elfergani, Issa; Littlehales, Richard; Parchin, Naser; Al-Yasir, Yasir; See, Chan H; Zhou, Dawei; Binti Zainal Abidin, Zuhairiah; Alibakhshikenari, Mohammad; Zebiri, Chemseddine; Elmegri, Fauzi; Abusitta, Musa; Ullah, Atta; Abdussalam, Fathi M.A.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; McEwan, Neil J.; Noras, James; Hodgetts, Russell; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A


Mohamed Abdul-Al

Ahmed S.I. Amar

Issa Elfergani

Richard Littlehales

Yasir Al-Yasir

Dawei Zhou

Zuhairiah Binti Zainal Abidin

Mohammad Alibakhshikenari

Chemseddine Zebiri

Fauzi Elmegri

Musa Abusitta

Atta Ullah

Fathi M.A. Abdussalam

Jonathan Rodriguez

Neil J. McEwan

James Noras

Russell Hodgetts

Raed A Abd-Alhameed


Employing Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) in new wireless communication and sensing technologies has substantially increased the level of human exposure to EMF waves. This paper presents a useful insight into the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological media that is defined by the heat generation due to induced currents and dielectric loss. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) defines the heating amount in a biological medium that is irradiated by an electromagnetic field value. The paper reviews the radio frequency hazards due to the SAR based on various safety standards and organisations, including a detailed investigation of previously published work in terms of modelling and measurements. It also summarizes the most common techniques utilised between 1978 and 2021, in terms of the operational frequency spectrum, bandwidth, and SAR values.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 4, 2022
Online Publication Date Feb 9, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Feb 4, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 9, 2022
Journal Electronics
Electronic ISSN 2079-9292
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 11
Issue 4
Article Number 511
Keywords Electromagnetic fields, EMF, SAR, radio frequency hazards
Public URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations