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Load‐modulation technique without using quarter‐wavelength transmission line

Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Yahya, Maan A.; Parchin, Naser O.; Al?Yasir, Yasir; Sajedin, Maryam; Elfergani, Issa; McEwan, Neil J.; Abd?Alhameed, Raed A.; Rayit, Ashwain; Rodriguez, Jonathan


Ahmed M. Abdulkhaleq

Maan A. Yahya

Yasir Al?Yasir

Maryam Sajedin

Issa Elfergani

Neil J. McEwan

Raed A. Abd?Alhameed

Ashwain Rayit

Jonathan Rodriguez


A proposed method for achieving active load-modulation technique without using a quarter-wavelength transmission line is discussed and evaluated. The theoretical analysis shows that the active load-modulation can be achieved without using a quarter-wavelength line, where the main amplifier sees a low impedance when the input signal level is low, and this impedance increases in proportion to the amount of current contributed from the peaking amplifier. The peaking amplifier sees an impedance decreasing from infinity to the normalized impedance. To validate the method, a circuit was designed, simulated and fabricated using two symmetrical gallium nitride (GaN) transistors (6 W) to achieve a peak power of 12 W and 6 dB output back-off efficiency. The design operates with 400 MHz bandwidth at 3.6 GHz and showed an average efficiency of 50% at 6 dB back-off and an efficiency of 75% at peak power. The designed circuit was tested with CW and modulated signals, the amplifier showed an Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) of 31–35.5 dB when tested with a wideband code division multiple access signal of 6 dB peak-average-power ratio (PAPR) at 35.5 dBm average power. Additional 20 dB of linearity improvement was achieved after adding a lineariser.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 13, 2020
Online Publication Date May 15, 2020
Publication Date 2020-09
Deposit Date Feb 21, 2022
Journal IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation
Print ISSN 1751-8725
Electronic ISSN 1751-8733
Publisher Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 11
Pages 1209-1215
Public URL