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The Effect of Occupants’ Behaviour on the Building Performance Gap: UK Residential Case Studies

Bahadori-Jahromi, Ali; Salem, Radwa; Mylona, Anastasia; Hasan, Agha Usama; Zhang, Hexin


Ali Bahadori-Jahromi

Radwa Salem

Anastasia Mylona

Agha Usama Hasan


Studies have shown that the assumptions used to create dynamic thermal models of buildings do not reflect their actual energy use. Bridging the energy performance gap is vital in ensuring that a designed or retrofitted building meets the energy performance targets. Using thermal analysis simulation software TAS, this paper presents a simulation model of seven different UK single family houses. The results from the various models are validated by comparing the actual energy demand against the simulated consumption. The simulation results show that the heating set point has the greatest impact on the simulated energy demand. The results also demonstrate that the energy demand of the dwellings can be reduced by applying window opening schemes and by controlling the heating setpoint temperature and schedule. Plug load consumption is also con-sidered by using plug load data of real UK households, as obtained from a longitudinal study, and calibrating the model based on average plug load contributions for the households. The results showed that, by increasing the heating set point and window opening schedules by 10% from self-reported data, and by considering an additional 12% for plug loads, the energy performance gap is reduced to less than >15% for all examined houses.


Bahadori-Jahromi, A., Salem, R., Mylona, A., Hasan, A. U., & Zhang, H. (2022). The Effect of Occupants’ Behaviour on the Building Performance Gap: UK Residential Case Studies. Sustainability, 14(3), Article 1362.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 17, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 25, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Jan 20, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 25, 2022
Journal Sustainability
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 14
Issue 3
Article Number 1362
Keywords thermal analysis simulation; performance gap; residential homes; occupant behaviour
Public URL


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