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An Investigation into the Appropriateness of Car-Following Models in Assessing Autonomous Vehicles

Higatani, Akito; Saleh, Wafaa


Akito Higatani


The dramatic progress of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has made autodriving technology extensively emphasised. Various models have been developed for the aim of modelling the behaviour of autonomous vehicles and their impacts on traffic, although there is still a lot to be researched about the technology. There are three main features that need to be represented in any car-following model to enable it to model autonomous vehicles: desired time gap, collision avoidance system and sensor detection range. Most available car-following models satisfy the first feature, most of the available car-following models do not satisfy the second feature and only few models satisfy the third feature. Therefore, conclusions from such models must be taken cautiously. Any of these models could be considered for updating to include a collision avoidance-system module, in order to be able to model autonomous vehicles. The Helly model is car-following model that has a simple structure and is sometimes used as the controller for Autonomous Vehicles (AV), but it does not have a collision avoidance concept. In this paper, the Helly model, which is a very commonly used classic car-following model is assessed and examined for possible update for the purpose of using it to model autonomous vehicles more efficiently. This involves assessing the parameters of the model and investigating the possible update of the model to include a collision avoidance-system module. There are two procedures that have been investigated in this paper to assess the Helly model to allow for a more realistic modelling of autonomous vehicles. The first technique is to investigate and assess the values of the parameters of the model. The second procedure is to modify the formula of that model to include a collision avoidance system. The results show that the performance of the modified full-range Auto Cruising Control (FACC) Helly model is superior to the other models in almost all situations and for almost all time-gap settings. Only the Alexandros E. Papacharalampous’s Model (A.E.P.) controller seems to perform slightly better than the (FACC) Helly model. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the (FACC) Helly model be recommended as the most accurate model to use to represent autonomous vehicles in microsimulations, and that it should be further investigated.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Oct 18, 2021
Online Publication Date Oct 27, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Dec 2, 2021
Publicly Available Date Dec 2, 2021
Journal Sensors
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 21
Issue 21
Article Number 7131
Keywords autonomous vehicles; car-following models; Helly models; ITS
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An Investigation into the Appropriateness of Car-Following Models in Assessing Autonomous Vehicles (11.5 Mb)

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Copyright Statement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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