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An effective salp swarm based MPPT for photovoltaic systems under dynamic and partial shading conditions

Jamaludin, Mohd Nasrul Izzani; Tajuddin, Mohammad Faridun Naim; Ahmed, Jubaer; Azmi, Azralmukmin; Azmi, Syahrul Ashikin; Ghazali, Nur Hafizah; Babu, Thanikanti Sudhakar; Alhelou, Hassan Haes


Mohd Nasrul Izzani Jamaludin

Mohammad Faridun Naim Tajuddin

Azralmukmin Azmi

Syahrul Ashikin Azmi

Nur Hafizah Ghazali

Thanikanti Sudhakar Babu

Hassan Haes Alhelou


This study proposes a duty cycle-based direct search method that capitalizes on a bioinspired optimization algorithm known as the salp swarm algorithm (SSA). The goal is to improve the tracking capability of the maximum power point (MPP) controller for optimum power extraction from a photovoltaic system under dynamic environmental conditions. The performance of the proposed SSA is tested under a transition between uniform irradiances and a transition between partial shading (PS) conditions with a focus on convergence speed, fast and accurate tracking, reduce high initial exploration oscillation, and low steady-state oscillation at MPP. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed SSA algorithm in terms of tracking performance. The performance of the SSA method is better than the conventional (hill-climbing) and among other popular metaheuristic methods. Further validation of the SSA performance is conducted via experimental studies involving a DC-DC buck-boost converter driven by TMS320F28335 DSP on the Texas Instruments Experimenter Kit platform. Hardware results show that the proposed SSA method aligns with the simulation in terms of fast-tracking, convergence speed, and satisfactory accuracy under PS and dynamic conditions. The proposed SSA method tracks maximum power with high efficiency through its superficial structures and concepts, as well as its easy implementation. Moreover, the SSA maintains a steady-state oscillation at a minimum level to improve the overall energy yield. It thus compensates for the shortcomings of other existing methods.


Jamaludin, M. N. I., Tajuddin, M. F. N., Ahmed, J., Azmi, A., Azmi, S. A., Ghazali, N. H., …Alhelou, H. H. (2021). An effective salp swarm based MPPT for photovoltaic systems under dynamic and partial shading conditions. IEEE Access, 9, 34570-34589.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 15, 2021
Online Publication Date Feb 19, 2021
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Dec 28, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jan 6, 2022
Journal IEEE Access
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Pages 34570-34589
Keywords MPPT, salp swarm optimization, partial shading, PV characteristic, MATLAB
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