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Electroceramics for High-Energy Density Capacitors: Current Status and Future Perspectives

Wang, Ge; Lu, Zhilun; Li, Yong; Li, Linhao; Ji, Hongfen; Feteira, Antonio; Zhou, Di; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Shujun; Reaney, Ian M


Ge Wang

Zhilun Lu

Yong Li

Linhao Li

Hongfen Ji

Antonio Feteira

Di Zhou

Dawei Wang

Shujun Zhang

Ian M Reaney


Materials exhibiting high energy/power density are currently needed to meet the growing demand of portable electronics, electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage devices. The highest energy densities are achieved for fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors, but conventional dielectric capacitors are receiving increased attention for pulsed power applications due to their high power density and their fast charge–discharge speed. The key to high energy density in dielectric capacitors is a large maximum but small remanent (zero in the case of linear dielectrics) polarization and a high electric breakdown strength. Polymer dielectric capacitors offer high power/energy density for applications at room temperature, but above 100 °C they are unreliable and suffer from dielectric breakdown. For high-temperature applications, therefore, dielectric ceramics are the only feasible alternative. Lead-based ceramics such as La-doped lead zirconate titanate exhibit good energy storage properties, but their toxicity raises concern over their use in consumer applications, where capacitors are exclusively lead free. Lead-free compositions with superior power density are thus required. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental principles of energy storage in dielectrics. We discuss key factors to improve energy storage properties such as the control of local structure, phase assemblage, dielectric layer thickness, microstructure, conductivity, and electrical homogeneity through the choice of base systems, dopants, and alloying additions, followed by a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art. Finally, we comment on the future requirements for new materials in high power/energy density capacitor applications.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 28, 2021
Online Publication Date Apr 28, 2021
Publication Date May 26, 2021
Deposit Date Oct 21, 2021
Publicly Available Date Oct 22, 2021
Journal Chemical Reviews
Print ISSN 0009-2665
Electronic ISSN 1520-6890
Publisher American Chemical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 121
Issue 10
Pages 6124-6172
Keywords Capacitors, Energy storage, Electrical properties, Ceramics, Insulators
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