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Rolling rhythms in front crawl swimming with six-beat kick

Psycharakis, Stelios G.; Sanders, Ross H.; Sanders, Ross; Psycharakis, Stelios


Stelios G. Psycharakis

Ross H. Sanders

Ross Sanders

Stelios Psycharakis


The purpose of this study was to establish the rhythm characteristics of skilled front crawl swimmers using a six-beat kick. These included the amplitudes of the first three Fourier harmonics (H1, H2, H3) and their percent contributions to power contained in the angular displacement signals of the shoulders, hips, knees, and ankles with respect to the longitudinal axis in line with the swimming direction. Three-dimensional video data of seven national/international level swimmers were collected during simulated 200m front crawl races in which swimmers maintained six-beat kicking patterns. Swimmers differed in all variables but had small variability across the four 50m laps. Modest changes occurred during the 200m, with the exception of shoulder roll, which remained constant and was represented almost entirely by a single sinusoid (H1). Changes across laps reached significance for swimming speed, stroke rate, hip roll, and H3 wave velocity between the knee and ankle. A H3 body wave of moderate and increasing velocity travelled caudally from hip to ankle compatible, in the light of existing knowledge of aquatic locomotion, with the goal of generating propulsion in an efficient manner.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2009-02
Deposit Date Jan 26, 2009
Print ISSN 0021-9290
Electronic ISSN 1873-2380
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 42
Issue 3
Pages 273-279
Keywords Front crawl; Six-beat kick; Fourier harmonics; Body roll; Body waves; Rhythms; Swimming.
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