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Holistic face processing can inhibit recognition of forensic facial composites.

Hancock, Peter J. B.; Frowd, Charlie D.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; McIntyre, Alex H.

Authors

Peter J. B. Hancock

Charlie D. Frowd

Stephen R. H. Langton



Abstract

Facial composite systems help eyewitnesses to show the appearance of criminals. However, likenesses created by unfamiliar witnesses will not be completely accurate, and people familiar with the target can find them difficult to identify. Faces are processed holistically; we explore whether this impairs identification of inaccurate composite images and whether recognition can be improved. In Experiment 1 (n =64) an imaging technique was used to make composites of celebrity faces more accurate and identification was contrasted with the original composite images. Corrected composites were better recognized, confirming that errors in production of the likenesses impair identification. The influence of holistic face processing was
explored by misaligning the top and bottom parts of the composites (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1984). Misalignment impaired recognition of corrected composites but identification of the original, inaccurate composites significantly improved. This effect was replicated with facial composites of non-celebrities in Experiment 2 (n = 57). We conclude that, like real faces, facial composites are
processed holistically: recognition is impaired because unlike real faces, composites contain inaccuracies and holistic face processing makes it difficult to perceive
identifiable features. This effect was consistent across composites of celebrities and composites of people who are personally familiar. Our findings suggest that
identification of forensic facial composites can be enhanced by presenting composites in a misaligned format.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2016-04
Deposit Date Mar 16, 2016
Publicly Available Date Apr 30, 2016
Print ISSN 0147-7307
Electronic ISSN 1573-661X
Publisher American Psychological Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 40
Issue 2
Pages 128-135
DOI https://doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000160
Keywords Facial composite; face recognition; configural; featural; holistic; eyewitness;
Public URL http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/id/eprint/9666
Publisher URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000160
Contract Date Mar 16, 2016

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