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Performance of Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Hybrid Automatic Repeat ReQuest: Stop-and-Wait

Khan, Fazlullah; ur Rehman, Ateeq; Usman, Muhammad; Tan, Zhiyuan; Puthal, Deepak


Fazlullah Khan

Ateeq ur Rehman

Muhammad Usman

Deepak Puthal


The enormous developments in the field of wireless communication technologies have made the unlicensed spectrum bands crowded, resulting uncontrolled interference to the traditional wireless network applications. On the other hand, licensed spectrum bands are almost completely allocated to the licensed users also known as Primary users (PUs). This dilemma became a blackhole for the upcoming innovative wireless network applications. To mitigate this problem, the cognitive radio (CR) concept emerges as a promising solution for reducing the spectrum scarcity issue. The CR network is a low cost solution for efficient utilization of the spectrum by allowing secondary users (SUs) to exploit the unoccupied licensed spectrum. In this paper, we model the PU’s utilization activity by a two-state Discrete-Time-Markov Chain (DTMC) (i.e., Free and busy states), for identifying the temporarily unoccupied spectrum bands,. Furthermore, we propose a Cognitive Radio Sense-and-Wait assisted HARQ scheme, which enables the Cluster Head (CH) to perform sensing operation for the sake of determining the PU’s activity. Once the channel is found in free state, the CH advertise control signals to the member nodes for data transmission relying on Stop-and-Wait Hybrid- Automatic Repeat-Request (SW-HARQ). By contrast, when the channel is occupied by the PU, the CH waits and start sensing again. Additionally, the proposed CRSW assisted HARQ scheme is analytical modeled, based on which the closed-form expressions are derived both for average block delay and throughput. Finally, the correctness of the closed-form expressions are confirmed by the simulation results. It is also clear from the performance results that the level of PU utilization and the reliability of the PU channel have great influence on the delay and throughput of CRSW assisted HARQ model.


Khan, F., ur Rehman, A., Usman, M., Tan, Z., & Puthal, D. (2018). Performance of Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks Using Hybrid Automatic Repeat ReQuest: Stop-and-Wait. Mobile Networks and Applications,

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 24, 2017
Online Publication Date Feb 22, 2018
Publication Date Feb 22, 2018
Deposit Date Feb 24, 2018
Publicly Available Date Feb 23, 2019
Journal Mobile Networks and Applications
Print ISSN 1383-469X
Electronic ISSN 1572-8153
Publisher BMC
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Keywords Primary user detection modeling, Cognitive radio sensor networks, Wireless sensor networks, SW-HARQ, CRSW assisted HARQ model
Public URL


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Copyright Statement
This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Mobile Networks ad Applications. The final authenticated version is available online at:

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