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Opto-electrochemical variation with gel polymer electrolytes in transparent electrochemical capacitors for ionotronics

Kumar, Chandini; Sebastian, Arun K.; Markapudi, Prasutha Rani; Beg, Mustehsan; Sundaram, Senthilarasu; Hussain, Amir; Manjakkal, Libu


Chandini Kumar

Arun K. Sebastian

Prasutha Rani Markapudi


Advanced flexible ionotronic devices have found excellent applications in the next generation of electronic skin (e-skin) development for smart wearables, robotics, and prosthesis. In this work, we developed transparent ionotronic-based flexible electrochemical capacitors using gel electrolytes and indium tin oxide (ITO) based transparent flexible electrodes. Different gel electrolytes were prepared using various salts, including NaCl, KCl, and LiCl in a 1:1 ratio with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and compared its electrochemical performances. The interaction between gel electrolytes and ITO electrodes was investigated through the development of transparent electrochemical capacitors (TEC). The stable and consistent supply of ions was provided by the gel, which is essential for the charge storage and discharge within the TEC. The total charge contribution of the developed TECs is found from the diffusion-controlled mechanism and is measured to be 4.59 mC cm−2 for a LiCl/PVA-based gel. The prepared TEC with LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte exhibited a specific capacitance of 6.61 mF cm−2 at 10 μA cm−2. The prepared electrolyte shows a transparency of 99% at 550 nm and the fabricated TEC using LiCl/PVA gel exhibited a direct bandgap of 5.34 eV. The primary benefits of such ionotronic-based TEC development point to its potential future applications in the manufacturing of transparent batteries, electrochromic energy storage devices, ionotronic-based sensors, and photoelectrochemical energy storage devices.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 17, 2024
Online Publication Date Mar 14, 2024
Publication Date Mar 11, 2024
Deposit Date Mar 21, 2024
Publicly Available Date Mar 12, 2025
Journal Applied Physics Letters
Print ISSN 0003-6951
Electronic ISSN 1077-3118
Publisher AIP Publishing
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 124
Issue 11
Article Number 111603
Public URL