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A comprehensive review on carbon footprint of regular diet and ways to improving lowered emissions

Nabipour Afrouzi, H.; Ahmed, J.; Mobin Siddique, B.; Khairuddin, N.; Hassan, Ateeb


H. Nabipour Afrouzi

B. Mobin Siddique

N. Khairuddin

Ateeb Hassan


In light of the SDG goals, carbon emissions from different food and food-related products have been under serious scrutiny in recent years. Despite the increasing awareness of global warming and the carbon footprint issue, food culture in different societies is difficult to change. Food production and storage are related to food security. The assessment of food-related carbon footprint should be linked with the chain of food lines rather than food items per se. It is obvious that much of the carbon emission is contributed by the production of it, packaging, storage, transportation, modification, quality control, and other related logistics. Therefore, this research investigated the correlation between food consumption and carbon footprint in the two types of diets and different populated regions. A systematic literature review combined with a bibliometric analysis approach was taken to construct the discussion. It studied the sources of carbon footprint and the life cycle of daily diet consumption and compared the carbon footprint of animal and plant-based diets. An evaluation of carbon footprint from various dietary patterns in India, China, and Italy was qualitatively carried out based on the published data in different scientific databases, and quantified values were discussed. Animal-based protein diets, especially meat, were found to have a higher contribution of carbon footprint; rice, however, contributes the highest among the plant-based diets. The bibliometric analysis pointed to the academic engagement on food-related carbon footprint issues across the globe and the scope of improvement. This review will help researchers to construct a thematic framework, and policymakers reorient the policy implementation.

Journal Article Type Review
Acceptance Date Mar 26, 2023
Online Publication Date Mar 27, 2023
Publication Date 2023-06
Deposit Date May 17, 2023
Publicly Available Date May 17, 2023
Journal Results in Engineering
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Article Number 101054
Keywords Carbon footprint, Food-diet carbon emission, Global warming, Renewable energy, Bibliometric analysis


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