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The utility of a 12-lead electrocardiogram electrode misplacement simulator in education

Bond, R.R.; Finlay, D.D.; Nugent, C.D.; Moore, G.; Breen, C.J.; Wagner, G.S.; Guldenring, D.


R.R. Bond

D.D. Finlay

C.D. Nugent

G. Moore

G.S. Wagner

D. Guldenring


A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is recorded using 6 precordial electrodes and 3 limb electrodes, all of which are positioned at precise anatomical landmarks. Nevertheless, up to 4% of all 12-lead ECGs are recorded with incorrect electrode placement. In these circumstances, the 12-lead ECG can emulate or conceal a pathological condition and, therefore, produce a misdiagnosis. This can be detrimental to the patient because it may yield unnecessary therapy. Despite this fact, ECG textbooks contain little or no information regarding the effects of electrode misplacement. In addition, current pedagogic tools, for example, physical mannequins, do not facilitate the free positioning of electrodes. In an attempt to address this issue, an intuitive Web-based application referred to as the Electrode Misplacement Simulator (EMS), has been developed to aid the classical teaching of electrocardiology. The EMS facilitates the free positioning of electrodes while rendering the corresponding ECG leads in real time. This study assessed the utility of the EMS as an educational tool.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Oct 20, 2011
Publication Date 2011-11
Deposit Date Feb 23, 2023
Journal Journal of Electrocardiology
Print ISSN 0022-0736
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 44
Issue 6
Pages 748