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ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD in Lithuanian university students: Prevalence and associations with trauma exposure

Truskauskaite, Inga; Dumarkaite, Austeja; Petrauskaite, Gabija; Andersson, Gerhard; Brailovskaia, Julia; Karatzias, Thanos; Margraf, Jürgen; Kazlauskas, Evaldas


Inga Truskauskaite

Austeja Dumarkaite

Gabija Petrauskaite

Gerhard Andersson

Julia Brailovskaia

Jürgen Margraf

Evaldas Kazlauskas


Objective: Young adults are at high risk for developing mental disorders. Moreover, trauma exposure and trauma-related disorders in emerging adulthood are highly prevalent. The study aimed to explore the prevalence of traumatic experiences, probable ICD-11 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable complex PTSD (CPTSD), and links between trauma exposure and traumatic stress reactions among first-year university students in Lithuania. Method: In total, 1,626 university students from Lithuania, 68.2% female, mean age 19.09 (SD = 1.05) years, were recruited for the study. Probable ICD-11 PTSDs were measured using the self-report International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ). Results: A majority (77.2%) of young adults had been exposed to traumatic experiences. The prevalence of probable ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD in the total sample was 4.6% and 3.4%, respectively. Both PTSD and CPTSD were associated with cumulative lifetime trauma experiences. CPTSD was related to sexual trauma, whereas PTSD was linked to single traumatic incidents, like a physical assault. Both probable PTSD and probable CPTSD were associated with physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Conclusion: The findings of our study show that nearly 8 in 10 university students were exposed to trauma at the beginning of their studies. The prevalence of probable PTSD/CPTSD was comparable to other studies conducted on the general population and university students.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 7, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 23, 2023
Publication Date 2023-07
Deposit Date Jan 25, 2023
Journal Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy
Print ISSN 1942-9681
Electronic ISSN 1942-969X
Publisher American Psychological Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 15
Issue 5
Pages 772–780
Keywords trauma, prevalence, PTSD, complex PTSD, youth, Lithuania