Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Top-down synthesis of graphene: A comprehensive review

Kumar, Neeraj; Salehiyan, Reza; Chauke, Vongani; Joseph Botlhoko, Orebotse; Setshedi, Katlego; Scriba, Manfred; Masukume, Mike; Sinha Ray, Suprakas


Neeraj Kumar

Reza Salehiyan

Vongani Chauke

Orebotse Joseph Botlhoko

Katlego Setshedi

Manfred Scriba

Mike Masukume

Suprakas Sinha Ray


Graphene research has become an emerging frontier in materials science because of its potential as a versatile material in multiple applications, from electronics, sensors, water treatment, batteries, displays, advanced composites, and coatings to biomedical applications. While the community has witnessed tremendous advances in the laboratory-scale synthesis of graphene, it is crucial to focus on sustainable large-scale graphene production to adopt graphene-based technology at an industrial scale. Several top-down and bottom-up methods have been developed to realize affordable graphene production. However, a low-cost scalable graphene production method with acceptable quality remains a challenge; top-down processes are demonstrating their potential to offer a more straightforward solution. Herein, we present an overview of recent progress in the research and development of top-down graphene synthesis methods and their potential to scale-up graphene production. We cover the effect of different synthesis parameters on the quality control of graphene. In addition, we provide a brief overview of bottom-up methods. Finally, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions in top-down methods for large-scale graphene production.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 21, 2021
Online Publication Date Feb 8, 2021
Publication Date 2021-05
Deposit Date Jan 30, 2023
Journal FlatChem
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 27
Article Number 100224
Keywords Graphene; Top-down synthesis; Liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE); Existing challenges; Future directions