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Tourist socio-cultural aversions: A holistic conceptual framework

Holder, Afiya; Ruhanen, Lisa; Mkono, Mucha; Walters, Gabrielle


Lisa Ruhanen

Mucha Mkono

Gabrielle Walters


Socio-cultural sensitivities such as xenophobia, racism, and other forms of prejudice impact demand for tourism products and experiences. Existing studies on these phenomena have tended to be framed through singular or binary lenses, and a holistic exploration and conceptualisation to inform tourist behaviour research is absent. This paper fills this critical gap by conceptualising tourist socio-cultural aversions that underpin tourists’ avoidance of destinations, products and experiences. Two theoretical contributions are made: (1) a tourist socio-cultural aversion typology is proposed; and (2) the complexities of implicit and explicit, as well as aggressive and passive aversions, are explored. The paper highlights key managerial implications of aversions and in doing so, provides businesses, the tourism sector, and government agencies with an understanding of tourists implicit or explicit aversions to particular destinations or products. The socio-cultural and economic ramifications for individuals, businesses and communities is considerable if left unaddressed.


Holder, A., Ruhanen, L., Mkono, M., & Walters, G. (2021). Tourist socio-cultural aversions: A holistic conceptual framework. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 49, 439-450.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 22, 2021
Online Publication Date Oct 28, 2021
Publication Date 2021-12
Deposit Date Feb 9, 2023
Journal Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management
Print ISSN 1447-6770
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 49
Pages 439-450
Keywords Aversion, Bias, Prejudice, Discrimination, Avoidance, Tourist behaviour