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Blockchain Technologies for the Internet of Things: Research Issues and Challenges

Ferrag, Mohamed Amine; Derdour, Makhlouf; Mukherjee, Mithun; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Maglaras, Leandros; Janicke, Helge


Mohamed Amine Ferrag

Makhlouf Derdour

Mithun Mukherjee

Abdelouahid Derhab

Helge Janicke


This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the existing blockchain protocols for the Internet of Things (IoT) networks. We start by describing the blockchains and summarizing the existing surveys that deal with blockchain technologies. Then, we provide an overview of the application domains of blockchain technologies in IoT, e.g., Internet of Vehicles, Internet of Energy, Internet of Cloud, Edge computing, etc. Moreover, we provide a classification of threat models, which are considered by blockchain protocols in IoT networks, into five main categories, namely identity-based attacks, manipulation-based attacks, cryptanalytic attacks, reputation-based attacks, and service-based attacks. In addition, we provide a taxonomy and a side-by-side comparison of the state-of-the-art methods toward secure and privacy-preserving blockchain technologies with respect to the blockchain model, specific security goals, performance, limitations, computation complexity, and communication overhead. Based on the current survey, we highlight open research challenges and discuss possible future research directions in the blockchain technologies for IoT.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Nov 22, 2018
Publication Date 2019-04
Deposit Date Jan 6, 2023
Journal IEEE Internet of Things Journal
Print ISSN 2327-4662
Electronic ISSN 2327-4662
Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 6
Issue 2
Pages 2188-2204
Keywords Blockchain, consensus, Internet of Things (IoT), security, threats
Public URL