Processes such as co-design, crowdsourcing and open design are challenging previously held notions about the role of the consumer within New Product Development. The degree and validity of consumer involvement in product creation varies according to the process concerned, however to date little research exists to classify this involvement. In this paper the New Product Development process is divided into four phases: conception, specification, design and manufacture. The ability of the consumer to influence each phase when engaged in design activity is assessed. A graphical classification of New Product Development strategies is presented, mapped against the commitment of the designer to consumer involvement, and a number of new categories of design are proposed. The changing role of the designer from interpreter to facilitator of consumer wishes is also discussed.
Sinclair, M., & Campbell, R. I. (2014). A classification of consumer involvement in new product development. In Design's Big Debates - DRS International Conference 2014 (1582-1598)