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Integrating Blue: How do we make Nationally Determined Contributions work for both blue carbon and local coastal communities?

Dencer-Brown, Amrit Melissa; Shilland, Robyn; Friess, Daniel; Herr, Doroth�e; Benson, Lisa; Berry, Nicholas J.; Cifuentes-Jara, Miguel; Colas, Patrick; Damayanti, Ellyn; L�pez Garc�a, Elisa; Gavald�o, Marina; Grimsditch, Gabriel; Hejnowicz, Adam P.; Howard, Jennifer; Tawhidul Islam, Sheikh; Kennedy, Hilary; Rashid Kivugo, Rahma; Lang�at, Joseph K.S.; Lovelock, Catherine; Malleson, Ruth; Macreadie, Peter I.; Andrade-Medina, Rosal�a; Mohamed, Ahmed; Pidgeon, Emily; Ramos, Jorge; Rosette, Minerva; Mwafrica Salim, Mwanarusi; Schoof, Eva; Talukder, Byomkesh; Thomas, Tamara; Vanderklift, Mathew A.; Huxham, Mark


Robyn Shilland

Daniel Friess

Doroth�e Herr

Lisa Benson

Nicholas J. Berry

Miguel Cifuentes-Jara

Patrick Colas

Ellyn Damayanti

Elisa L�pez Garc�a

Marina Gavald�o

Gabriel Grimsditch

Adam P. Hejnowicz

Jennifer Howard

Sheikh Tawhidul Islam

Hilary Kennedy

Rahma Rashid Kivugo

Joseph K.S. Lang�at

Catherine Lovelock

Ruth Malleson

Peter I. Macreadie

Rosal�a Andrade-Medina

Ahmed Mohamed

Emily Pidgeon

Jorge Ramos

Minerva Rosette

Mwanarusi Mwafrica Salim

Eva Schoof

Byomkesh Talukder

Tamara Thomas

Mathew A. Vanderklift


Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCEs) help mitigate and adapt to climate change but their integration into policy, such as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), remains underdeveloped. Most BCE conservation requires community engagement, hence community-scale projects must be nested within the implementation of NDCs without compromising livelihoods or social justice. Thirty-three experts, drawn from academia, project development and policy, each developed ten key questions for consideration on how to achieve this. These questions were distilled into ten themes, ranked in order of importance, giving three broad categories of people, policy & finance, and science & technology. Critical considerations for success include the need for genuine participation by communities, inclusive project governance, integration of local work into national policies and practices, sustaining livelihoods and income (for example through the voluntary carbon market and/or national Payment for Ecosystem Services and other types of financial compensation schemes) and simplification of carbon accounting and verification methodologies to lower barriers to entry.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 21, 2022
Online Publication Date May 3, 2022
Publication Date 2022-09
Deposit Date Feb 22, 2022
Publicly Available Date May 9, 2022
Print ISSN 0044-7447
Electronic ISSN 1654-7209
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 51
Pages 1978-1993
Keywords Blue carbon, Conservation, Local livelihoods, Nature-based solutions, NDCs, Sustainability
Public URL


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