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Novel Privacy Preserving Non-Invasive Sensing-Based Diagnoses of Pneumonia Disease Leveraging Deep Network Model

Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Shafique, Arslan; Khan, Kashif Hesham; Khalid, Sohail; Alotaibi, Abdullah Alhumaidi; Althobaiti, Turke; Ramzan, Naeem; Ahmad, Jawad; Shah, Syed Aziz; Abbasi, Qammer H.


Mujeeb Ur Rehman

Arslan Shafique

Kashif Hesham Khan

Sohail Khalid

Abdullah Alhumaidi Alotaibi

Turke Althobaiti

Naeem Ramzan

Syed Aziz Shah

Qammer H. Abbasi


This article presents non-invasive sensing-based diagnoses of pneumonia disease, exploiting a deep learning model to make the technique non-invasive coupled with security preservation. Sensing and securing healthcare and medical images such as X-rays that can be used to diagnose viral diseases such as pneumonia is a challenging task for researchers. In the past few years, patients’ medical records have been shared using various wireless technologies. The wireless transmitted data are prone to attacks, resulting in the misuse of patients’ medical records. Therefore, it is important to secure medical data, which are in the form of images. The proposed work is divided into two sections: in the first section, primary data in the form of images are encrypted using the proposed technique based on chaos and convolution neural network. Furthermore, multiple chaotic maps are incorporated to create a random number generator, and the generated random sequence is used for pixel permutation and substitution. In the second part of the proposed work, a new technique for pneumonia diagnosis using deep learning, in which X-ray images are used as a dataset, is proposed. Several physiological features such as cough, fever, chest pain, flu, low energy, sweating, shaking, chills, shortness of breath, fatigue, loss of appetite, and headache and statistical features such as entropy, correlation, contrast dissimilarity, etc., are extracted from the X-ray images for the pneumonia diagnosis. Moreover, machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines, decision trees, random forests, and naive Bayes are also implemented for the proposed model and compared with the proposed CNN-based model. Furthermore, to improve the CNN-based proposed model, transfer learning and fine tuning are also incorporated. It is found that CNN performs better than other machine learning algorithms as the accuracy of the proposed work when using naive Bayes and CNN is 89% and 97%, respectively, which is also greater than the average accuracy of the existing schemes, which is 90%. Further, K-fold analysis and voting techniques are also incorporated to improve the accuracy of the proposed model. Different metrics such as entropy, correlation, contrast, and energy are used to gauge the performance of the proposed encryption technology, while precision, recall, F1 score, and support are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed machine learning-based model for pneumonia diagnosis. The entropy and correlation of the proposed work are 7.999 and 0.0001, respectively, which reflects that the proposed encryption algorithm offers a higher security of the digital data. Moreover, a detailed comparison with the existing work is also made and reveals that both the proposed models work better than the existing work.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 6, 2022
Online Publication Date Jan 8, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Jan 31, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 31, 2022
Journal Sensors
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Issue 2
Article Number 461
Keywords encryption; security; deep learning; machine learning; chaos
Public URL


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