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The Use of Recovery Strategies in Professional Soccer: A Worldwide Survey

Field, Adam; Harper, Liam D.; Chrismas, Bryna C.R.; Fowler, Peter M.; McCall, Alan; Paul, Darren J.; Chamari, Karim; Taylor, Lee

Authors

Adam Field

Liam D. Harper

Bryna C.R. Chrismas

Peter M. Fowler

Darren J. Paul

Karim Chamari

Lee Taylor



Abstract

Purpose: To survey soccer practitioners’ recovery strategy: (1) use, (2) perceived effectiveness, and (3) factors influencing their implementation in professional soccer. Methods: A cross-sectional convenience sample of professional soccer club/confederation practitioners completed a web-based survey (April to July 2020). Pearson chi-square and Fisher exact tests with Cramer V (φ − c) assessed relationships and their strength, respectively, between the perceived effectiveness and frequency of strategy use. Results: A total of 80 soccer practitioners (13 countries) completed the survey. The 3 most important recovery objectives were “alleviating muscle damage/fatigue,” “minimizing injury risk,” and “performance optimization.” The most frequently used strategies were active recovery, structured recovery day, extra rest day, massage, cold-water therapy, and carbohydrate provision (predominantly on match day and match day + 1). Relationships were identified between perceived effectiveness and frequency of strategy use for sleep medication (P < .001, φ − c = 0.48), carbohydrate provision (P = .007, φ − c = 0.60), protein provision (P = .007, φ − c = 0.63), an extra rest day (P < .001, φ − c = 0.56), and a structured recovery day (P = .049, φ − c = 0.50). Conclusions: The study demonstrates that professional soccer practitioners have a range of objectives geared toward enhancing player recovery. A disconnect is apparent between the perceived effectiveness of many recovery strategies and their frequency of use in an applied setting. Novel data indicate that strategies are most frequently employed around match day. Challenges to strategy adoption are mainly competing disciplinary interests and resource limitations. Researchers and practitioners should liaise to ensure that the complexities involved with operating in an applied environment are elucidated and apposite study designs are adopted, in turn, facilitating the use of practically effective and compatible recovery modalities.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date May 29, 2021
Publication Date Dec 1, 2021
Deposit Date Dec 16, 2021
Journal International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Print ISSN 1555-0265
Electronic ISSN 1555-0273
Publisher Human Kinetics
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 16
Issue 12
Pages 1804-1815
DOI https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0799
Keywords football; practitioner; coach; applied practice; qualitative research
Public URL http://researchrepository.napier.ac.uk/Output/2830180