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Triangulation in practice.

Turner, Phil; Turner, Susan


Phil Turner

Susan Turner


Triangulation is the means by which an alternate perspective is used to validate, challenge or extend existing findings. It is frequently used when the field of study is difficult, demanding or contentious and presence research meets all of these criteria. We distinguish between the use of hard and soft triangulation-the former emphasising the challenging of findings, the latter being more confirmatory in character. Having reviewed a substantial number of presence papers, we conclude that strong triangulation is not widely used while soft triangulation is routinely employed. We demonstrate the usefulness of hard triangulation by contrasting an ontological analysis of in-ness with an empirical study of (computer) game playing. We conclude that presence research would be well served by the wider use of hard triangulation and for the reporting of anomalous and ill-fitting results.


Turner, P., & Turner, S. (2009). Triangulation in practice. Virtual Reality, 13, 171-181.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2009-05
Deposit Date Jan 12, 2010
Publicly Available Date May 16, 2017
Print ISSN 1359-4338
Electronic ISSN 1434-9957
Publisher BMC
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Pages 171-181
Keywords computer game playing; virtual reality; involvement; hard triangulation; ontological analysis; presence research;
Public URL
Publisher URL
Additional Information A much earlier version of this paper appears in the Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Presence, 279–287.


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