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Interaction strategies for an affective conversational agent

Smith, Cameron; Crook, Nigel; Dobnik, Simon; Charlton, Daniel; Boye, Johan; Pulman, Stephen; Santos de la Camara, Raul; Turunen, Markku; Benyon, David; Bradley, Jay; Gamb�ck, Bj�rn; Hansen, Preben; Mival, Oli; Webb, Nick; Cavazza, Marc


Cameron Smith

Nigel Crook

Simon Dobnik

Daniel Charlton

Johan Boye

Stephen Pulman

Raul Santos de la Camara

Markku Turunen

David Benyon

Jay Bradley

Bj�rn Gamb�ck

Preben Hansen

Nick Webb

Marc Cavazza


The development of embodied conversational agents (ECA) as companions brings several challenges for both affective and conversational dialogue. These include challenges in generating appropriate affective responses, selecting the overall shape of the dialogue, providing prompt system response times, and handling interruptions. We present an implementation of such a companion showing the development of individual modules that attempt to address these challenges. Further, to resolve resulting conflicts, we present encompassing interaction strategies that attempt to balance the competing requirements along with dialogues from our working prototype to illustrate these interaction strategies in operation. Finally, we provide the results of an evaluation of the companion using an evaluation methodology created for conversational dialogue and including analysis using appropriateness annotation.


Smith, C., Crook, N., Dobnik, S., Charlton, D., Boye, J., Pulman, S., …Cavazza, M. (2011). Interaction strategies for an affective conversational agent. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 20, 395-411.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2011
Deposit Date Mar 6, 2012
Publicly Available Date May 16, 2017
Print ISSN 1054-7460
Electronic ISSN 1531-3263
Publisher MIT Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 20
Pages 395-411
Keywords Embodied conversational agents (ECA); interaction strategies; companions; conversational dialogue;
Public URL
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