Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Reducing risk in foreign market entry strategies: standardization versus modification

Omar, Maktoba; Porter, Marc


Maktoba Omar

Marc Porter



– The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the influence of six key contextual determinants upon the degree of standardization for firms who enter a new market directly. In the context of international business market entry, much research emphasis has been placed upon the issues of standardization versus modification. Generally, however, this research focuses on promotion and advertising.

– This paper investigates the research variables that influence standardization/modification decisions in a framework comprising “firm or company context” and “host country context”. The research, undertaken with a sample of 700 UK‐based for‐profit organizations, adapts and further develops Hofstede's study.

– It identifies that the elements of competition and political risk are negatively significant in relation to the degree of standardization. In addition, economic development and international experience are positively significant in relation to the degree of standardization. Firm size and culture differences have no impact upon the degree of standardization.

Research limitations/implications
– Research is only conducted among British companies operating cross border.

– This paper's originality is in providing specific types of elements as risk reducers in a firm's market entry strategy.


Omar, M., & Porter, M. (2011). Reducing risk in foreign market entry strategies: standardization versus modification. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness, 21, 382-396.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Aug 2, 2011
Deposit Date Jun 8, 2015
Publicly Available Date Jun 8, 2015
Print ISSN 1059-5422
Publisher Emerald
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 21
Pages 382-396
Keywords International business; Standardization; Modification; Market entry strategy; Hofstede; Reducing risk
Public URL
Publisher URL


You might also like

Downloadable Citations