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Turning the Tide: How Blue Carbon and Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Might Help Save Mangrove Forests

Locatelli, Tommaso; Binet, Thomas; Kairo, James Gitundu; King, Lesley; Madden, Sarah; Patenaude, Genevieve; Upton, Caroline; Huxham, Mark


Tommaso Locatelli

Thomas Binet

James Gitundu Kairo

Lesley King

Sarah Madden

Genevieve Patenaude

Caroline Upton


In this review paper, we aim to describe the potential for, and the key challenges to, applying PES projects to mangroves. By adopting a “carbocentric approach,” we show that mangrove forests are strong candidates for PES projects. They are particularly well suited to the generation of carbon credits because of their unrivaled potential as carbon sinks, their resistance and resilience to natural hazards, and their extensive provision of Ecosystem Services other than carbon sequestration, primarily nursery areas for fish, water purification and coastal protection, to the benefit of local communities as well as to the global population. The voluntary carbon market provides opportunities for the development of appropriate protocols and good practice case studies for mangroves at a small scale, and these may influence larger compliance schemes in the future. Mangrove habitats are mostly located in developing countries on communally or state-owned land. This means that issues of national and local governance, land ownership and management, and environmental justice are the main challenges that require careful planning at the early stages of mangrove PES projects to ensure successful outcomes and equitable benefit sharing within local communities.


Locatelli, T., Binet, T., Kairo, J. G., King, L., Madden, S., Patenaude, G., …Huxham, M. (2014). Turning the Tide: How Blue Carbon and Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Might Help Save Mangrove Forests. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 43, 981-995.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2014-12
Deposit Date Feb 11, 2015
Publicly Available Date Feb 11, 2015
Print ISSN 0044-7447
Electronic ISSN 1654-7209
Publisher BMC
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 43
Pages 981-995
Keywords Mangroves; PES; Carbon credits; Environmental justice;
Carbon standards; Natural Hazards;
Public URL
Publisher URL


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