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Solar-Powered Active Road Studs and Highway Infrastructure: Effect on Vehicle Speeds (2021)
Journal Article
Llewellyn, R., Cowie, J., & Fountas, G. (2021). Solar-Powered Active Road Studs and Highway Infrastructure: Effect on Vehicle Speeds. Energies, 14(21), 7209. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217209

Vehicle speeds have a direct relationship with the severity of road crashes and may influence their probability of occurrence. Solar-powered active road studs have been shown to have a positive effect on driver confidence, but their impact on vehicle... Read More about Solar-Powered Active Road Studs and Highway Infrastructure: Effect on Vehicle Speeds.

Active Road Studs as an Alternative to Lighting on Rural Roads: Driver Safety Perception (2020)
Journal Article
Llewellyn, R., Cowie, J., & Maher, M. (2020). Active Road Studs as an Alternative to Lighting on Rural Roads: Driver Safety Perception. Sustainability, 12(22), Article 9648. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229648

Drivers, particularly with increasing age, cite driving at night as being problematic and feeling unsafe. Ultimately this may result in self-regulation and avoidance, with potentially negative health effects. The issue is commonly mitigated through p... Read More about Active Road Studs as an Alternative to Lighting on Rural Roads: Driver Safety Perception.

Naturalistic measurement of driver eye height and object height using photogrammetry (2018)
Journal Article
Llewellyn, R., Sarkar, P., & Taylor, M. D. (2021). Naturalistic measurement of driver eye height and object height using photogrammetry. Proceedings of the ICE - Transport, 174(7), 430-440. https://doi.org/10.1680/jtran.18.00124

Driver eye height and object height are key factors in the derivation of basic parameters for safe and economically efficient highway design. This study critically reviews previous approaches to the measurement of these values and investigates the c... Read More about Naturalistic measurement of driver eye height and object height using photogrammetry.

Improving Lane Adherence at Signalised Roundabouts with Intelligent Road Studs - A Case Study (2017)
Presentation / Conference
Llewellyn, R. (2017, September). Improving Lane Adherence at Signalised Roundabouts with Intelligent Road Studs - A Case Study. Paper presented at JCT Traffic Signals Symposium

Spiral markings at signalised roundabouts improve traffic flow but can reduce safety due to poor lane discipline. This paper describes an innovative method of improving lane adherence at signalised spiral-marked roundabouts through the use of intelli... Read More about Improving Lane Adherence at Signalised Roundabouts with Intelligent Road Studs - A Case Study.

Parking enforcement activity and public attitudes to enforcement: a case study of Edinburgh, Scotland (UK) in the context of the EU Push and Pull project (2016)
Presentation / Conference
Rye, T., & Llewellyn, R. (2016, November). Parking enforcement activity and public attitudes to enforcement: a case study of Edinburgh, Scotland (UK) in the context of the EU Push and Pull project. Paper presented at International workshop on the economics of parking, Barcelona, 28th November 2016

Effective parking enforcement is absolutely critical to the effective operation and to the public acceptability of on-street parking policy. Very little empirically-based academic research has however been devoted to this topic; one of the more rece... Read More about Parking enforcement activity and public attitudes to enforcement: a case study of Edinburgh, Scotland (UK) in the context of the EU Push and Pull project.

Engineering condition assessment of cycling infrastructure: Cyclists’ perceptions of satisfaction and comfort (2015)
Journal Article
Calvey, J., Shackleton, J., Taylor, M., & Llewellyn, R. (2015). Engineering condition assessment of cycling infrastructure: Cyclists’ perceptions of satisfaction and comfort. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 78, 134-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2015.04.031

The UK National Cycle Network comprises 23,660 km of cycling and walking paths of which a significant percentage is dedicated off-road infrastructure. This represents a significant civil engineering infrastructure asset that currently contributes to... Read More about Engineering condition assessment of cycling infrastructure: Cyclists’ perceptions of satisfaction and comfort.

Travel plans: a critical comparison of the application of land use planning processes in England and Scotland (2014)
Journal Article
Llewellyn, R., Tricker, R., & Paton, D. (2014). Travel plans: a critical comparison of the application of land use planning processes in England and Scotland. Transport, 29(3), 235-247. https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2014.913260

A Travel Plan is a travel demand management tool which has the potential to alter the means of travel to or from any destination or origin of movement to modes of transport other than the private car. A Travel Plan typically comprises of a package of... Read More about Travel plans: a critical comparison of the application of land use planning processes in England and Scotland.

After the downturn: where now for travel plans in Scotland? (2014)
Presentation / Conference
Llewellyn, R., Tricker, R., & Paton, D. (2014, April). After the downturn: where now for travel plans in Scotland?. Paper presented at 10th Annual Scottish Transport Research and Applications Conference

A Travel Plan is a travel demand management tool which has the potential to alter the means of travel to or from any destination or origin of movement to modes of transport other than the private car. The last major review of the use of Travel Plans... Read More about After the downturn: where now for travel plans in Scotland?.

Intellibike: a cycle path surface quality assessment tool (2014)
Conference Proceeding
Calvey, J., Taylor, M. D., Shackleton, J. P., & Llewellyn, R. (2014). Intellibike: a cycle path surface quality assessment tool.

The IntelliBike is an instrumented bicycle capable of monitoring cycle path surface quality through onboard measuring and logging devices, as well as other key variables pertinent to infrastructure and environmental quality and thus cyclist comfort.... Read More about Intellibike: a cycle path surface quality assessment tool.

IntelliBike: a cycling infrastructure asset management system (2013)
Conference Proceeding
Taylor, M. D., Shackleton, J., Clavey, J., & Llewellyn, R. (2013). IntelliBike: a cycling infrastructure asset management system.

Research methods employed and pilot study data results for the authors’ IntelliBike: an innovative instrumented bicycle that can be used to monitor the conditions of off-road cycling infrastructure in real-time, are presented. The IntelliBike is desi... Read More about IntelliBike: a cycling infrastructure asset management system.

Inattentional Blindness and road safety: the potential role of intelligent road studs in reducing accidents
Conference Proceeding
Llewellyn, R., & Ladyman, S. (2016). Inattentional Blindness and road safety: the potential role of intelligent road studs in reducing accidents. In Proceedings of 11th ITS European Congress

In-vehicle distraction is often the subject of debate in relation to road safety. Distractions outside of the vehicle, however, are often overlooked. Both situations result in cognitive capture, a form of 'Inattentional Blindness'. This paper investi... Read More about Inattentional Blindness and road safety: the potential role of intelligent road studs in reducing accidents.